Nouns (48)

óptica, enfoque, perspectiva, punto de vista
n. the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer
punto de vista
n. the spatial property of the position from which something is observed
óptica, respecto, perspectiva, punto de vista
n. (usually preceded by `in') a detail or point; "it differs in that respect"
persuasión, sentir, parecer, criterio, visión, opinión, punto de vista, idea, pensamiento
n. a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty; "my opinion differs from yours"; "I am not of your persuasion"; "what are your thoughts on Haiti?"
mentalidad, parecer, visión, opinión, actitud, punto de vista
n. a habitual or characteristic mental attitude that determines how you will interpret and respond to situations
visión, perspectiva, punto de vista
n. a rationalized mental attitude
ángulo, vertiente, criterio, punto de vista
n. a mental position from which things are viewed; "we should consider this problem from the viewpoint of the Russians"; "teaching history gave him a special point of view toward current events"
perspectiva, punto de vista, luz
n. a particular perspective or aspect of a situation; "although he saw it in a different light, he still did not understand"
enfoque, visión, perspectiva, punto de vista
n. a biased way of looking at or presenting something
sentir, parecer, posición, opinión, punto de vista, idea
n. a message expressing a belief about something; the expression of a belief that is held with confidence but not substantiated by positive knowledge or proof; "his opinions appeared frequently on the editorial page"
bando, partido, posición, punto de vista
n. an opinion that is held in opposition to another in an argument or dispute; "there are two sides to every question"

Verbs (0)

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Fuzzynyms (321)

sensación, sentimiento
n. the experiencing of affective and emotional states; "she had a feeling of euphoria"; "he had terrible feelings of guilt"; "I disliked him and the feeling was mutual"
sensación, sentimiento
n. the experiencing of affective and emotional states; "she had a feeling of euphoria"; "he had terrible feelings of guilt"; "I disliked him and the feeling was mutual"
deferencia, respeto, estima, acatamiento, consideración
n. a courteous expression (by word or deed) of esteem or regard; "his deference to her wishes was very flattering"; "be sure to give my respects to the dean"
respetuosidad, acatamiento, distinción, consideración
n. courteous regard for people's feelings; "in deference to your wishes"; "out of respect for his privacy"
postura, posición
n. standing posture
postura, posición
n. standing posture
juicio recto, ingenio, sagacidad, buen criterio, criterio, discernimiento, enjuiciamiento, sentido
n. the mental ability to understand and discriminate between relations
juicio recto, ingenio, sagacidad, buen criterio, criterio, discernimiento, enjuiciamiento, sentido
n. the mental ability to understand and discriminate between relations
facultad mental, facultad cognitiva, facilidad, facultad, aptitud
n. one of the inherent cognitive or perceptual powers of the mind
facultad mental, facultad cognitiva, facilidad, facultad, aptitud
n. one of the inherent cognitive or perceptual powers of the mind
capacidad mental, intelecto, entendimiento, mente, comprensión, inteligencia
n. the capacity for rational thought or inference or discrimination; "we are told that man is endowed with reason and capable of distinguishing good from evil"
capacidad mental, intelecto, entendimiento, mente, comprensión, inteligencia
n. the capacity for rational thought or inference or discrimination; "we are told that man is endowed with reason and capable of distinguishing good from evil"
facultad visiva, facultad de ver, visión, vista
n. the ability to see; the visual faculty
facultad visiva, facultad de ver, visión, vista
n. the ability to see; the visual faculty
cuidado, atención, caso
n. paying particular notice (as to children or helpless people); "his attentiveness to her wishes"; "he spends without heed to the consequences"
intuición, instinto, olfato
n. instinctive knowing (without the use of rational processes)
intuición, instinto, olfato
n. instinctive knowing (without the use of rational processes)
coger, pensar, comprender, entender, entendimiento, comprensión, cogitación, idea, reflexión, pensamiento
n. the process of using your mind to consider something carefully; "thinking always made him frown"; "she paused for thought"
meditación, estudio, reflexión
n. attentive consideration and meditation; "after much cogitation he rejected the offer"
rumiadura, bartuleo, cavilación, rumia, meditación, reflexión
n. regurgitation of small amounts of food; seen in some infants after feeding
cálculo aproximado, aprecio, aproximación, estimación, opinión, idea
n. an approximate calculation of quantity or degree or worth; "an estimate of what it would cost"; "a rough idea how long it would take"
motivo, razón
n. a fact that logically justifies some premise or conclusion; "there is reason to believe he is lying"
motivo, razón
n. a fact that logically justifies some premise or conclusion; "there is reason to believe he is lying"
noción, concepto, concepción, idea
n. an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances
entendimiento, enjuiciamiento, opinión, juicio, decisión
n. an opinion formed by judging something; "he was reluctant to make his judgment known"; "she changed her mind"
entendimiento, enjuiciamiento, opinión, juicio, decisión
n. an opinion formed by judging something; "he was reluctant to make his judgment known"; "she changed her mind"
conclusión, determinación, decisión, resolución
n. deciding or controlling something's outcome or nature; "the determination of grammatical inflections"
parecer, intuición, sentimiento, opinión, impresión, suposición
n. a vague idea in which some confidence is placed; "his impression of her was favorable"; "what are your feelings about the crisis?"; "it strengthened my belief in his sincerity"; "I had a feeling that she was lying"
parecer, intuición, sentimiento, opinión, impresión, suposición
n. a vague idea in which some confidence is placed; "his impression of her was favorable"; "what are your feelings about the crisis?"; "it strengthened my belief in his sincerity"; "I had a feeling that she was lying"
presciencia, previsión
n. the power to foresee the future
presciencia, previsión
n. the power to foresee the future
persuasión, sentir, parecer, criterio, visión, opinión, punto de vista, idea, pensamiento
n. a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty; "my opinion differs from yours"; "I am not of your persuasion"; "what are your thoughts on Haiti?"
persuasión, sentir, parecer, criterio, visión, opinión, punto de vista, idea, pensamiento
n. a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty; "my opinion differs from yours"; "I am not of your persuasion"; "what are your thoughts on Haiti?"
opinión pública, opinión
n. a belief or sentiment shared by most people; the voice of the people; "he asked for a poll of public opinion"
opinión pública, opinión
n. a belief or sentiment shared by most people; the voice of the people; "he asked for a poll of public opinion"
postura, actitud, disposición
n. a complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways; "he had the attitude that work was fun"
postura, actitud, disposición
n. a complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways; "he had the attitude that work was fun"
postura, actitud, disposición
n. a complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways; "he had the attitude that work was fun"
defensiva
n. an attitude of defensiveness (especially in the phrase `on the defensive')
mentalidad, parecer, visión, opinión, actitud, punto de vista
n. a habitual or characteristic mental attitude that determines how you will interpret and respond to situations
mentalidad, parecer, visión, opinión, actitud, punto de vista
n. a habitual or characteristic mental attitude that determines how you will interpret and respond to situations
postura, ademán, posición, actitud
n. a rationalized mental attitude
parcialidad, prejuicio, sesgo
n. a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation
respeto, estima, consideración, estimación
n. an attitude of admiration or esteem; "she lost all respect for him"
culto, adoración, veneración
n. the activity of worshipping
visión, perspectiva, punto de vista
n. a rationalized mental attitude
visión, perspectiva, punto de vista
n. a rationalized mental attitude
visión, perspectiva, punto de vista
n. a rationalized mental attitude
ángulo, vertiente, criterio, punto de vista
n. a mental position from which things are viewed; "we should consider this problem from the viewpoint of the Russians"; "teaching history gave him a special point of view toward current events"
perspectiva, punto de vista, luz
n. a particular perspective or aspect of a situation; "although he saw it in a different light, he still did not understand"
enfoque, visión, perspectiva, punto de vista
n. a biased way of looking at or presenting something
enfoque, visión, perspectiva, punto de vista
n. a biased way of looking at or presenting something
escena, toma
n. a consecutive series of pictures that constitutes a unit of action in a film
pronóstico, predicción, agüero, vaticinio, previsión
n. a prediction about how something (as the weather) will develop
sentir, parecer, posición, opinión, punto de vista, idea
n. a message expressing a belief about something; the expression of a belief that is held with confidence but not substantiated by positive knowledge or proof; "his opinions appeared frequently on the editorial page"
doctrina, dogma, principio
n. a religious doctrine that is proclaimed as true without proof
vista
n. anything that is seen; "he was a familiar sight on the television"; "they went to Paris to see the sights"
vocalización, voz
n. something suggestive of speech in being a medium of expression; "the wee small voice of conscience"; "the voice of experience"; "he said his voices told him to do it"
vocerío, gritería, aulló, alarido, clamoreo, aullido, chillido, algarada, vociferación, tole, clamor, llamamiento, guirigay, protesta, grito, bulla, griterío, alboroto, jaleo
n. a loud utterance; often in protest or opposition; "the speaker was interrupted by loud cries from the rear of the audience"
alarido, chillido, grito
n. a loud utterance of emotion (especially when inarticulate); "a cry of rage"; "a yell of pain"
ardimiento, fervor, fogosidad, calor, ardor, celo, fuego
n. feelings of great warmth and intensity; "he spoke with great ardor"
ardimiento, fervor, fogosidad, calor, ardor, celo, fuego
n. feelings of great warmth and intensity; "he spoke with great ardor"
proclividad, inclinación, propensión, pendiente, afición, disposición
n. that toward which you are inclined to feel a liking; "her inclination is for classical music"
proclividad, inclinación, propensión, pendiente, afición, disposición
n. that toward which you are inclined to feel a liking; "her inclination is for classical music"
respeto reverencial, temor reverencial, sobrecogimiento, reverencia, veneración
n. a profound emotion inspired by a deity; "the fear of God"
confianza
n. a feeling of trust (in someone or something); "I have confidence in our team"; "confidence is always borrowed, never owned"
esperanza
n. the general feeling that some desire will be fulfilled; "in spite of his troubles he never gave up hope"
enternecimiento, afección, bienquerer, bienquerencia, afectuosidad, afecto, ternura, corazón, cariño, alma
n. a positive feeling of liking; "he had trouble expressing the affection he felt"; "the child won everyone's heart"; "the warmness of his welcome made us feel right at home"
enternecimiento, afección, bienquerer, bienquerencia, afectuosidad, afecto, ternura, corazón, cariño, alma
n. a positive feeling of liking; "he had trouble expressing the affection he felt"; "the child won everyone's heart"; "the warmness of his welcome made us feel right at home"
secta, comunidad religiosa, confesión
n. a class of one kind of unit in a system of numbers or measures or weights or money; "he flashed a fistful of bills of large denominations"
porción, parte
n. something determined in relation to something that includes it; "he wanted to feel a part of something bigger than himself"; "I read a portion of the manuscript"; "the smaller component is hard to reach"; "the animal constituent of plankton"
respeto, estima, aprecio, consideración, estimación
n. the condition of being honored (esteemed or respected or well regarded); "it is held in esteem"; "a man who has earned high regard"

Synonyms (0)

There are no items for this category

Antonyms (0)

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Research

In American and Canadian football, a punt is a kick performed by dropping the ball from the hands and then kicking the ball before it hits the ground. The most common use of this tactic is to punt the ball downfield to the opposing team, usually on the final down, with the hope of giving the receiving team a field position that is more advantageous to the kicking team when possession changes. The result of a typical punt, barring any penalties or extraordinary circumstances, is a first down for the receiving team.

The type of punt leads to different motion of the football. Alex Moffat invented the now-common spiral punt, as opposed to end-over-end.

Description

A punt in gridiron football is a kick performed by dropping the ball from the hands and then kicking the ball before it hits the ground. In football, the offense has a limited number of downs, or plays, in which to move the ball at least ten yards. The team in possession of the ball will typically punt the ball to the opposing team when they are on their final down (fourth down in American football, third down in Canadian football), do not want to risk a turnover on downs by not gaining enough yardage to make a first down and are in such a field position that they do not believe they can successfully make a field goal. The purpose of the punt is for the team in possession, or "kicking team", to move the ball as far as possible towards the opponent's end zone; this maximizes the distance the receiving team must advance the ball in order to score a touchdown upon taking possession. Thus, the most common use of this tactic is to punt the ball downfield to the opposing team, usually on the final down, with the hope of giving the receiving team a field position that is more advantageous to the kicking team when possession changes.

A punt play involves the kicking team lining up at the line of scrimmage with the kicker, or punter, typically lined up about 15 yards behind the center (in American football, where the end zone is only ten yards deep as opposed to twenty yards in Canadian football, this distance must be shortened if the ball is on a spot such that the kicker's normal position is on or beyond the end line). The receiving team lines up with one or two players downfield to catch the ball. The center makes a long snap to the kicker who then drops the ball and kicks it before it hits the ground. The player who catches the ball is then entitled to attempt to advance the ball.

The result of a typical punt, barring any penalties or extraordinary circumstances, is a first down for the receiving team at the spot where:

  • the receiver or subsequent receiving team ball carrier is downed or goes Out of bounds;
  • the ball crosses out of bounds, whether in flight or after touching the ground;
  • there is "illegal touching", defined as when a player from the kicking team is the first player to touch the ball after it has been punted beyond the line of scrimmage; or
  • a ball which is allowed to land comes to rest in-bounds without being touched (American football only).

Other possible results include the punt being blocked behind the line of scrimmage, and the ball being touched, but not caught or possessed, downfield by the receiving team. In both cases the ball is then "free" and "live" and will belong to whichever team recovers it.

Rules

 
The Baylor Bears punting against the Texas A&M Aggies in 2007

Common to American and Canadian football

  • If the kicked ball is blocked and fails to cross the line of scrimmage, it may be picked up and advanced by either team. However, if it is picked up by the kicking team, the play is treated as any other play from scrimmage; i.e., if it is the team's final down, it must advance the ball beyond the first down marker in order to avoid a turnover on downs.
  • The official rules regulate when and how the receiving team may hit the kicker before, during, and after the kick.
  • If the receiving team drops the ball or touches the ball beyond the line of scrimmage without catching it then it is considered a live ball and may be recovered by either team. If the receiving team never had full possession, it is considered to be a muffed punt rather than a fumble. However, the receiving player must be actively pursuing the ball. If the receiving player is blocked into the ball, it is not considered "touching" the ball.
  • A field goal cannot be scored on a punt kick.
 
The 2007 Virginia Tech Hokies football team blocks a punt against the Duke Blue Devils

American football

  • The player attempting to catch the kicked ball may attempt a fair catch. If caught, the ball becomes dead and the receiving team gets the ball at the spot of the catch.
  • A touchback may be called if the kicked ball enters the receiving team's end zone without first touching any player, whether in flight or on a bounce; or if the receiving team catches the ball in its own end zone and downs it before advancing the ball out of the end zone; or if the ball enters then exits the end zone behind the goal line. (In high school football, the ball automatically becomes dead when it crosses the goal line and cannot be returned out of the end zone.) The receiving team gets the ball at its own 20-yard line.
  • If a player from the kicking team is the first to touch the ball after it crosses the line of scrimmage, "illegal touching" is called and the receiving team gains possession at the spot where the illegal touching occurred. This is often not considered to be detrimental to the kicking team; for example, it is common for a player on the kicking team deliberately to make contact with the ball near the goal line before it enters the end zone to prevent a touchback. Since there is no further yardage penalty awarded, the kicking team is often said to have "downed the ball" when this occurs (and the NFL does not count it as an official penalty). While the ball is not automatically dead upon an illegal touch, and can be advanced by the receiving team (who would then have the choice of accepting the result of the play or taking the ball at the spot of the illegal touch), this rarely happens in practice, as illegal touching typically occurs when members of the kicking team are closer to the ball than members of the receiving team.
  • The length of the punt, referred to as punting yards or gross punting yards, is measured from the line of scrimmage (not the spot where the punter punts) to whichever of the following points applies: (1) the spot that a punt is caught; (2) the spot that a punt goes out of bounds; (3) the spot that a punt is declared dead because of illegal touching; or (4) the goal line, for punts that are ruled touchbacks.
  • The net punting yardage is taken by calculating the total punting yardage and subtracting any yardage earned by the receiving team on returns, and subtracting 20 yards for each touchback.
  • Under no circumstance can the kicking team score points as the direct result of a punt. (It can score indirectly if the receiving team loses possession of the ball or runs back into its own end zone and gets tackled.)

Canadian football

  • The kicker and any players behind him at the time of the kick are considered "onside"; any other players on the kicking team are considered "offside". A player who is onside may recover the kicked ball, while a player who is offside may not be the first to touch the kicked ball and is required to remain at least 5 yards from an opposing player attempting to catch the ball. Violations of these restrictions on an offside player are called "no yards" infractions, with various penalties associated with them.
  • The ball remains in play if it enters the goal area (end zone) until it is downed by a player on either team or goes out of bounds:
    • If a member of the receiving team downs it in the goal area or the ball goes out of bounds before being brought back into the field of play, a single is awarded to the kicking team and the receiving team gains possession at their own 35-yard line.
    • If an onside player downs the ball in the goal area the kicking team is awarded a touchdown.
    • If an offside player downs the ball in the goal area the receiving team gains possession after a "no yards" penalty is applied from their own 10-yard line.
  • If the ball strikes the goalpost assembly while in flight the receiving team gains possession at their own 25-yard line.
  • The length of the punt is measured from the line of scrimmage to the spot of the catch or the point where the kick goes out of bounds. The punt return is measured independently, though the value of the punt to the kicking team is determined by distance from the line of scrimmage to the end of the return.
  • Canadian rules also allow a punt when the punter is not behind the line of scrimmage, which is not permitted in American rules. This tactic (termed an "open-field kick" in the rule book) is usually reserved for last-second desperation: for example, a player, after receiving a forward pass with no time left on the clock and with no hope of evading tacklers, may punt the ball in the hope that it will score a single or be recovered by an onside teammate. After recovering a ball kicked by the other team a player can also punt out of his own end zone in order to avoid a single. On at least two occasions in the CFL, a last-second missed field goal attempt was followed by three punts, all on one play, as the teams alternately tried to avoid a single and score a single.[1][2][3][4]

Types of punts

The type of punt leads to different motion of the football.

 

Spiral punt

Alex Moffat is generally recognized as the creator of the spiral punt, having developed it during his time as a college athlete in the early 1880s.[5] It is the longest type of punt kick. In flight, the ball spins about its long axis, instead of end over end (like a drop punt) or not at all (like a regular punt kick). This makes the flight of the ball more aerodynamic, and the pointy ends of gridiron footballs mitigate the difficulty to catch.

Pooch punt

Teams may line up in a normal offensive formation and have the quarterback perform a pooch punt, also known as a quick kick. This usually happens in situations where the offense is in a 4th and long situation in their opponent's territory, but are too close to the end zone for a traditional punt and (depending on weather conditions) too far for a field goal try. Like fake punt attempts, these are rarely tried, although Randall Cunningham, Tom Brady, Matt Cassel and Ben Roethlisberger have successfully executed pooch punts in the modern NFL era.[6][7][8] Some pooch punts occur on third down and long situations in American football to fool the defense, which is typically not prepared to return a punt on third down.

Fake punts

On very rare occasions, a punting team will elect to attempt a "fake punt" — line up in punt formation and begin the process as normal, but instead do one of the following:

  • The punter may choose to run with the ball.
  • The ball may be snapped to the upback, who then runs with the ball.
  • The punter (or another back, who is standing nearby) may decide to pass to a pre-designated receiver.
  • The ball may be snapped to the upback, who then passes the ball to a receiver.

Although teams sometimes use fake punts to exploit a weakness in the opposing team's defense, a fake punt is very rare, and often used in desperate situations, such as to keep a drive alive when a team is behind and needs to catch up quickly, or to spark an offense in a game where the defense dominates. The high risk of "fake punts", and the need to maintain an element of surprise when the play is actually called, explains why this play is seldom seen. Fake punts are more likely to occur when there is short yardage remaining to secure a first down, and/or the line of scrimmage is inside the opponent's territory.

One of the most famous fake punts was by New York Giants linebacker Gary Reasons during the 1990 NFC Championship Game against the San Francisco 49ers, in which he rushed for 30 yards on a fourth down conversion via a direct snap to him instead of the punter, Sean Landeta, which was a critical difference in a 15–13 victory. The Giants went on to win Super Bowl XXV.

Rugby-style punt

Similar to spiral punt, rugby punt is done with a running start before punting while remaining behind the line of scrimmage.[9]

 
Bill Putich punting on the run.

Record punts

  • The longest punt in North American pro football history is a 108-yarder by Zenon Andrusyshyn of the CFL's Toronto Argonauts (at Edmonton, October 23, 1977).[10] This record was also tied by Christopher Milo of the Saskatchewan Roughriders on October 29, 2011, at a home game at Mosaic Stadium at Taylor Field in Regina, during which winds gusted above 35 miles per hour (56 km/h) (this is also the site of the three longest field goals in CFL history and one of the windiest fields in professional football).
  • The longest punt in NFL play was a 98-yarder by Steve O'Neal of the New York Jets in an American Football League game played against the Denver Broncos on September 21, 1969.[11]
  • Jeff Feagles is the all-time NFL career punts and punt yards leader with 1,713 punts and 71,211 punt yards over 352 games.[12]
  • Bob Cameron is the all-time CFL career punts and punt yards leader with 3,129 punts and 134,301 punt yards over 394 games.[13]
  • Shane Lechler holds the NFL record for career punting average at 47.29 yards per punt (855 punts for 40,429 yards) over the 2000–2010 seasons.[14]
  • Sammy Baugh averaged 51.40 yards per punt in 1940 (35 punts for 1,799 yards). Lechler holds the modern single-season record with a 51.14 yards per punt average in 2009 (96 punts for 4,909 yards)[14]
  • The record for college football is held by the University of Nevada’s Pat Brady, who booted the longest possible punt on a 100-yard field at 99 yards against Loyola Universityon October 28, 1950.[15]
  • Joe Theismann punted for one yard against the Chicago Bears in 1985.[16][17]

Return

punt return is one of the receiving team's options to respond to a punt. A player positioned about 35–45 yards from the line of scrimmage (usually a wide receiver or return specialist) will attempt to catch or pick up the ball after it is punted by the opposing team's punter. He then attempts to carry the ball as far as possible back in the direction of the line of scrimmage, without being tackled or running out of bounds. He may also lateralthe ball to teammates in order to keep the play alive should he expect to be tackled or go out of bounds. DeSean Jackson, then playing for the Philadelphia Eagles in the "Miracle at the New Meadowlands", is the only NFL player to return a punt for a game-winning touchdown on the final play of regulation.[18] The NFL record holder for the number of punt returns for a touchdown in a career is Devin Hester with 14.

References

  1. ^ "Crazy ending lifts Alouettes over Argonauts". archive.org. 1 February 2014. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014.
  2. ^ blackknight101066 (30 October 2010). "Crazy Argonauts – Alouettes CFL ending.mp4" – via YouTube.
  3. ^ CFLfan#31 (19 September 2015). "SC: Top 10 Crazy CFL Moments" – via YouTube.
  4. ^ "Nov. 19, 1972 Abendschan boots Blue in stadium's greatest game". winnipegfreepress.com.
  5. ^ David M. Nelson. The Anatomy of a Game: Football, the Rules, and the Men who Made the Game. p. 53.
  6. ^ "Randall Cunningham Past Stats, Statistics, History, and Awards – databaseFootball.com". databasefootball.com. Archived from the original on 2009-01-14.
  7. ^ "Let's talk about Brady's punt". go.com.
  8. ^ "Ben Roethlisberger Past Stats, Statistics, History, and Awards – databaseFootball.com". databasefootball.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-31.
  9. ^ First Sporting Production (2015-10-17), Aussie punter Blake O'Neill's Punts 80 yard Rugby Style Punt, retrieved 2017-09-07
  10. ^ "Regular Season All-Time Records – Individual Records – Punting"Archived 2009-09-03 at the Wayback Machine.. Canadian Football League. (The CFL's field is ten yards longer than the NFL's.)
  11. ^ "Bouncing ... bouncing – Pro Football Hall of Fame Official Site". profootballhof.com.
  12. ^ "NFL Punting Leaders (All Time)". PlayerFilter.com.
  13. ^ Regular Season All-Time Records Archived 2010-07-04 at the Wayback Machine. Canadian Football League
  14. a b 2011 NFL Record and Fact Book
  15. ^ National Football Foundation
  16. ^ Joe Theismann NFL & AFL Statistics. pro-football-reference.com. Pro Football Reference.
  17. ^ UPI (September 30, 1985). Bears Show Redskins a Team on the Rise. Lodi News-Sentinel, p. 17.
  18. ^ Frank, Reuben (December 19, 2010). "Miracle at the Meadowlands III: Eagles 38, Giants 31". CSN Philly. Retrieved 2010-12-19.
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