Nouns (6)

short sleep, forty winks, cat sleep, snooze, catnap, nap
n. sleeping for a short period of time (usually not in bed)

Verbs (3)

catch a wink, catnap, nap
v. take a siesta; "She naps everyday after lunch for an hour"

Adverbs (0)

There are no items for this category

Adjectives (0)

There are no items for this category

Fuzzynyms (1)

rest
v. be inactive, refrain from acting; "The committee is resting over the summer"

Synonyms (0)

There are no items for this category

Antonyms (0)

There are no items for this category

Research

The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus)[1][4] is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal. They are often called house cats[5] when kept as indoor pets or simply cats when there is no need to distinguish them from other felids and felines. They are often valued by humans for companionship and for their ability to hunt vermin. There are more than seventy cat breeds recognized by various cat registries.

Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws and teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular and predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. They can see in near darkness. Like most other mammals, cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smell than humans. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species, and cat communication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations (mewing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting) as well as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific body language.[6]

Cats have a high breeding rate.[7] Under controlled breeding, they can be bred and shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, as well as the abandonment of former household pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, requiring population control.[8] In certain areas outside cats' native range, this has contributed, along with habitat destruction and other factors, to the extinction of many bird species. Cats have been known to extirpate a bird species within specific regions and may have contributed to the extinction of isolated island populations.[9] Cats are thought to be primarily responsible for the extinction of 87 species of birds,[10] and the presence of feral and free-ranging cats makes some otherwise suitable locations unsuitable for attempted species reintroduction.[11]

Because cats were venerated in ancient Egypt, they were commonly believed to have been domesticated there,[12] but there may have been instances of domestication as early as the Neolithic from around 9,500 years ago (7500 BC).[13] A genetic study in 2007[14] concluded that all domestic cats are descended from Near Eastern wildcats, having diverged around 8000 BC in the Middle East.[12][15] A 2016 study found that leopard cats were undergoing domestication independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domesticated populations of today.[16][17] A 2017 study confirmed that domestic cats are descendants of those first domesticated by farmers in the Near East around 9,000 years ago.[18][19]

As of a 2007 study, cats are the second-most popular pet in the U.S. by number of pets owned, behind freshwater fish.[20] In a 2010 study, they were ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish and dogs, with around 8 million being owned.[21]

Taxonomy and evolution

The domestic cat is a member of the cat family, the felids, which are a rapidly evolving family of mammals that share a common ancestor only 10–15 million years ago[22] and include lions, tigers, cougars and many others. Within this family, domestic cats (Felis catus) are part of the genus Felis, which is a group of small cats containing about seven species (depending upon classification scheme).[1][23] Members of the genus are found worldwide and include the jungle cat (Felis chaus) of southeast Asia, European wildcat (F. silvestris silvestris), African wildcat (F. s. lybica), the Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti), and the Arabian sand cat (F. margarita), among others.[24]

The domestic cat is believed to have evolved from the Near Eastern wildcat, whose range covers vast portions of the Middle East westward to the Atlantic coast of Africa.[25][26] Between 70,000 and 100,000 years ago the animal gave rise to the genetic lineage that eventually produced all domesticated cats,[27] having diverged from the Near Eastern wildcat around 8,000 BC in the Middle East.[12][15]

The domestic cat was first classified as Felis catus by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1758.[1][2] Because of modern phylogenetics, domestic cats are usually regarded as another subspecies of the wildcat, F. silvestris.[1][28][29] This has resulted in mixed usage of the terms, as the domestic cat can be called by its subspecies name, Felis silvestris catus.[1][28][29] Wildcats have also been referred to as various subspecies of F. catus,[29] but in 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature fixed the name for wildcats as F. silvestris.[30] The most common name in use for the domestic cat remains F. catus. Sometimes, the domestic cat has been called Felis domesticus[31] as proposed by German naturalist J. C. P. Erxleben in 1777,[32] but these are not valid taxonomic names and have been used only rarely in scientific literature.[33] A population of Transcaucasian black feral cats was once classified as Felis daemon (Satunin 1904) but now this population is considered to be a part of the domestic cat.[34]

All the cats in this genus share a common ancestor that is believed to have lived around 6–7 million years ago in the Near East (the Middle East).[35] The exact relationships within the Felidae are close but still uncertain,[36][37] e.g. the Chinese mountain cat is sometimes classified (under the name Felis silvestris bieti) as a subspecies of the wildcat, like the North African variety F. s. lybica.[28][36]

 
Ancient Egyptian sculpture of the cat goddess Bastet. The earliest evidence of felines as Egyptian deities comes from c. 3100 BC.

In comparison to dogs, cats have not undergone major changes during the domestication process, as the form and behavior of the domestic cat is not radically different from those of wildcats and domestic cats are perfectly capable of surviving in the wild.[38][39] Fully domesticated house cats often interbreed with feral F. catus populations,[40] producing hybrids such as the Kellas cat. This limited evolution during domestication means that hybridisation can occur with many other felids, notably the Asian leopard cat.[41] Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have predisposed them for domestication as pets.[39] These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence.[42]:12–17 Several small felid species may have an inborn tendency towards tameness.[39]

Cats have either a mutualistic or commensal relationship with humans. Two main theories are given about how cats were domesticated. In one, people deliberately tamed cats in a process of artificial selection as they were useful predators of vermin.[43] This has been criticized as implausible, because the reward for such an effort may have been too little; cats generally do not carry out commands and although they do eat rodents, other species such as ferrets or terriers may be better at controlling these pests.[28] The alternative idea is that cats were simply tolerated by people and gradually diverged from their wild relatives through natural selection, as they adapted to hunting the vermin found around humans in towns and villages.[28]

Nomenclature and etymology

The origin of the English word cat (Old English catt) and its counterparts in other Germanic languages (such as German Katze), descended from Proto-Germanic *kattōn-, is controversial. It has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from Late Latin cattus, 'domestic cat', from catta (used around 75 AD by Martial),[46][47] compare also Byzantine Greekκάττα, Portuguese and Spanish gato, French chat, Maltese qattus, Lithuanian katė, and Old Church Slavonic kotъ (kot'), among others.[48] The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" (Kabyle) kaddîska, 'wildcat', and Nubiankadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggesets the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa.[49] Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau, 'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t,[50] but John Huehnergard says "the source [...] was clearly not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested."[49] Huehnergard opines it is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic (due to morphological alternations) and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gáđfi, 'female stoat', and Hungarianhölgy, 'stoat'; from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, 'female (of a furred animal)'.[51] In any case, cat is a classic example of a Wanderwort.

An alternative word is English puss (extended as pussy and pussycat). Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian puspusekatt. Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and Irish puisín or puiscín. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat.[52][53]

A group of cats can be referred to as a clowder or a glaring;[54] a male cat is called a tom or tomcat[55] (or a gib,[56] if neutered); an unspayed female is called a queen,[57] especially in a cat-breeding context; and a juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten. The male progenitor of a cat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its sire,[58] and its mother is its dam.[59] In Early Modern English, the word kitten was interchangeable with the now obsolete word catling.[60]

A pedigreed cat is one whose ancestry is recorded by a cat fancier organization. A purebred (or pure-bred) cat is one whose ancestry contains only individuals of the same breed. Many pedigreed and especially purebred cats are exhibited as show cats. Cats of unrecorded, mixed ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired cats (by coat type), or commonly as random-bred, moggies (chiefly British), or (using terms borrowed from dog breeding) mongrels or mutt-cats.

While the African wildcat is the ancestral subspecies from which domestic cats are descended, and wildcats and domestic cats can completely interbreed (being subspecies of the same species), several intermediate stages occur between domestic pet and pedigree cats on one hand and entirely wild animals on the other. The semi-feral cat, a mostly outdoor cat, is not owned by any one individual, but is generally friendly to people and may be fed by several households. Truly feral cats are associated with human habitation areas, foraging for food and sometimes intermittently fed by people, but are typically wary of human interaction.[42]

Biology

 

Anatomy

 
Diagram of the general anatomy of a male

Domestic cats are similar in size to the other members of the genus Felis, typically weighing between 4 and 5 kg (9 and 10 lb).[38] Some breeds, such as the Maine Coon, can occasionally exceed 11 kg (24 lb). Conversely, very small cats, less than 2 kg (4 lb), have been reported.[61] The world record for the largest cat is 21 kg (50 lb).[62][self-published source] The smallest adult cat ever officially recorded weighed around 1 kg (2 lb).[62] Feral cats tend to be lighter, as they have more limited access to food than house cats. The Boston Cat Hospital weighed trapped feral cats, and found the average feral adult male to weigh 4 kg (9 lb), and average adult female 3 kg (7 lb).[63] Cats average about 23–25 cm (9–10 in) in height and 46 cm (18 in) in head/body length (males being larger than females), with tails averaging 30 cm (12 in) in length;[64] feral cats may be smaller on average.

Cats have seven cervical vertebrae, as do almost all mammals; 13 thoracic vertebrae (humans have 12); seven lumbar vertebrae (humans have five); three sacral vertebrae like most mammals (humans have five); and a variable number of caudal vertebrae in the tail (humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal coccyx).[65]:11 The extra lumbar and thoracic vertebrae account for the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis.[65] :16 Unlike human arms, cat forelimbs are attached to the shoulder by free-floating clavicle bones which allow them to pass their body through any space into which they can fit their head.[66]

 
Cat skull

The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful specialized jaw.[67]:35 Within the jaw, cats have teeth adapted for killing prey and tearing meat. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth, inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord, causing irreversible paralysis and death.[68] Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae.[68] The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors. These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication.[67]:37 Although cats tend to have better teeth than most humans, with decay generally less likely because of a thicker protective layer of enamel, a less damaging saliva, less retention of food particles between teeth, and a diet mostly devoid of sugar, they are nonetheless subject to occasional tooth loss and infection.[69]

Cats, like dogs, are digitigrades. They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg.[70] Cats are capable of walking very precisely because, like all felines, they directly register; that is, they place each hind paw (almost) directly in the print of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks. This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. This trait is shared with camels and giraffes. As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals (and many other land animals, such as lizards): the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously.[71]

Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable claws.[72] In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and fur around the paw's toe pads. This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet.[73] Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws. They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneading, or for extra traction on soft surfaces. Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws.[74] The fifth front claw (the dewclaw) is proximal to the other claws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger". This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of big cats and dogs. It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping. Some breeds of cats are prone to polydactyly (extra toes and claws).[74] These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America.[75]

Physiology

Cats are familiar and easily kept animals, and their physiology has been particularly well studied; it generally resembles those of other carnivorous mammals, but displays several unusual features probably attributable to cats' descent from desert-dwelling species.[33] For instance, cats are able to tolerate quite high temperatures: Humans generally start to feel uncomfortable when their skin temperature passes about 38 °C (100 °F), but cats show no discomfort until their skin reaches around 52 °C (126 °F),[67]:46 and can tolerate temperatures of up to 56 °C (133 °F) if they have access to water.[76]

Normal physiological values[77]:330
Body temperature 38.6 °C (101.5 °F)
Heart rate 120–140 beats per minute
Breathing rate 16–40 breaths per minute
 
Thermograph of various body parts of a cat

Cats conserve heat by reducing the flow of blood to their skin and lose heat by evaporation through their mouths. Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads,[78] and pant for heat relief only at very high temperatures[79] (but may also pant when stressed). A cat's body temperature does not vary throughout the day; this is part of cats' general lack of circadian rhythms and may reflect their tendency to be active both during the day and at night.[80]:1 Cats' feces are comparatively dry and their urine is highly concentrated, both of which are adaptations to allow cats to retain as much water as possible.[33] Their kidneys are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water,[81] and can even rehydrate by drinking seawater.[82][80]:29 While domestic cats are able to swim, they are generally reluctant to enter water as it quickly leads to exhaustion.[83]

Nutrition

Cats are obligate carnivores: their physiology has evolved to efficiently process meat, and they have difficulty digesting plant matter.[33] In contrast to omnivores such as rats, which only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be protein.[33] A cat's gastrointestinal tract is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the digestive enzymes needed to digest carbohydrates.[84] These traits severely limit the cat's ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients, as well as certain fatty acids.[84] Despite the cat's meat-oriented physiology, several vegetarian or vegan cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with chemically synthesized taurine and other nutrients, in attempts to produce a complete diet. However, some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require,[85] and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies.[86]

Cats do eat grass occasionally. A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of folic acid. Another is that it is used to supply dietary fiber, helping the cat defecate more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and vomit.[87]

Cats are unusually dependent on a constant supply of the amino acid arginine, and a diet lacking arginine causes marked weight loss and can be rapidly fatal.[88] Arginine is an essential additive in cat food because cats have low levels of the enzymes aminotransferase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate which are responsible for the synthesis of ornithine and citrulline in the small intestine.[89] Citrulline would typically go on to the kidneys to make arginine, but because cats have a deficiency in the enzymes that make it, citrulline is not produced in adequate quantities to make arginine. Arginine is essential in the urea cycle in order to convert the toxic component ammonia into urea that can then be excreted in the urine. Because of its essential role, deficiency in arginine results in a buildup of toxic ammonia and leads to hyperammonemia.[89] The symptoms of hyperammonemia include lethargy, vomiting, ataxia, hyperesthesia and can be serious enough to induce death and coma in a matter of days if a cat is being fed an arginine-free diet. The quick onset of these symptoms is due to the fact that diets devoid in arginine will typically still contain all of the other amino acids, which will continue to be catabolized by the body, producing mass amounts of ammonia that very quickly build up with no way of being excreted.

Another unusual feature is that the cat cannot produce taurine,[note 1] with a deficiency in this nutrient causing macular degeneration, wherein the cat's retina slowly breaks down, causing irreversible blindness.[33] This is due to the hepatic activity of cystinesulfinic acid decarboxylase being low in cats.[91] This limits the ability of cats to biosynthesize the taurine they need from its precursor, the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately results in inadequate taurine production needed for normal function.[91] Deficiencies in taurine result in compensated function of feline cardiovascular and reproductive systems.[91] These abnormalities can also be accompanied by developmental issues in the central nervous system along with degeneration of the retina.[91]

Niacin is an essential vitamin for the cat; dietary deficiency can lead to anorexia, weight loss and an increase in body temperature.[92] Biosynthesis of niacin occurs by metabolism of tryptophan via the kynurenine pathway to quinolinic acid, the niacin precursor. However, cats have a high activity of picolinic acid carboxylase, which converts one of the intermediates to picolinic acid instead of quinolinic acid.[93] As as result niacin can become deficient and require supplementation.[94]

Preformed vitamin A is required in the cat for retinal and reproductive health. Vitamin A is considered to be a fat-soluble vitamin and is seen as essential in a cat's diet. Normally, the conversion of beta-carotenes into vitamin A occurs in the intestine (more specifically the mucosal layer) of species, however cats lack the ability to undergo this process.[94] Both the kidney and liver are contributors to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase which converts the beta-carotene into retinol (vitamin A).[95] To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this enzyme leading to the cleavage and oxidation of carotenoids not taking place.[93]

Vitamin D3 is a dietary requirement for cats as they lack the ability to synthesize vitamin D3 from sunlight.[96] Cats obtain high levels of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholestrol delta 7 reductase which causes immediate conversion of vitamin D3 from sunlight to 7-dehydrocholesterol.[97] This fat soluble vitamin is required in cats for bone formation through the promotion of calcium retention, along with nerve and muscle control through absorption of calcium and phosphorus.[97]

Cats, like all mammals, need to get linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid, from their diet. Most mammals can convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, as well as the omega 3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) through the activity of enzymes, but this process is very limited in cats.[94] The Δ6-desaturase enzyme eventually converts linoleic acid, which is in its salt form linoleate, to arachidonate (salt form of arachidonic acid) in the liver, but this enzyme has very little activity in cats.[94] This means that arachidonic acid is an essential fatty acid for cats as they lack the ability to create required amounts of linoleic acid. Deficiency of arachidonic acid in cats is related to problems in growth, can cause injury and inflammation to skin (e.g. around the mouth) decreased platelet aggregation, fatty liver, increase in birth defects of kittens whose queens were deficient during pregnancy, and reproductive failure in queens.[94] Arachidonic acid can also be metabolized to eicosanoids that create inflammatory responses which are needed to stimulate proper growth and repair mechanisms in the cat.[98]

Cat food § Nutrient chart provides a list of the many nutrients cats require as well as the use of the nutrients in the body and the effects of the deficiency.

Senses

 
Reflection of camera flash from the tapetum lucidum

Cats have excellent night vision and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision.[67]:43 This is partly the result of cat eyes having a tapetum lucidum, which reflects any light that passes through the retina back into the eye, thereby increasing the eye's sensitivity to dim light.[99] Another adaptation to dim light is the large pupils of cats' eyes. Unlike some big cats, such as tigers, domestic cats have slit pupils.[100] These slit pupils can focus bright light without chromatic aberration, and are needed since the domestic cat's pupils are much larger, relative to their eyes, than the pupils of the big cats.[100] At low light levels, a cat's pupils will expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes.[101] However, domestic cats have rather poor color vision and (like most nonprimate mammals) have only two types of cones, optimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; they have limited ability to distinguish between red and green.[102] A 1993 paper reported a response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the rodswhich might be due to a third type of cone. However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true trichromatic vision.[103]

Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies. They can hear higher-pitched sounds than either dogs or humans, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz to 79,000 Hz, a range of 10.5 octaves, while humans and dogs both have ranges of about 9 octaves.[104][105] Cats can hear ultrasound, which is important in hunting[106]because many species of rodents make ultrasonic calls.[107] However, they do not communicate using ultrasound like rodents do. Cats' hearing is also sensitive and among the best of any mammal,[104] being most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz.[108] This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears (their pinnae), which both amplify sounds and help detect the direction of a noise.[106]

Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and a large surface of olfactory mucosa, about 5.8 cm2 (0.90 in2) in area, which is about twice that of humans.[109] Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol,[110] which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands.[111] Many cats also respond strongly to plants that contain nepetalactone, especially catnip, as they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion.[112] About 70–80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone.[113] This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine (Actinidia polygama) and the herb valerian; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors.[114]

Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans (470 or so versus more than 9,000 on the human tongue).[115] Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste sweetness.[116] Their taste buds instead respond to acids, amino acids like protein, and bitter tastes.[117] Cats and many other animals have a Jacobson's organ in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of flehmening. It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot. Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C (100 °F) which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated (which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing).[115]

 
The whiskers of a cat are highly sensitive to touch.

To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers (vibrissae) over their body, especially their faces. These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage.[67]:47

 

File:BIOASTRONAUTICS RESEARCH Gov.archives.arc.68700.ogv

 
Comparison of cat righting reflexes in gravity versus zero gravity

Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for settling in high places, or perching. In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats may strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch, as does a leopard.[118] Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory. During a fall from a high place, a cat can reflexively twist its body and right itself using its acute sense of balance and flexibility.[119] This is known as the cat righting reflex. An individual cat always rights itself in the same way, provided it has the time to do so, during a fall. The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm (3.0 ft). Cats without a tail (e.g. many specimens of the Manx and Cymric breeds) also have this ability, since a cat mostly relies on leg movement and conservation of angular momentum to set up for landing, and the tail is little used for this feat.[120] Their excellent sense of balance allows cats to move with great stability. A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws.[121]

Health

The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent years. In the early 1980s, it was about seven years,[122]:33[123] rising to 9.4 years in 1995[122]:33 and 15.1 years in 2018.[124] However, cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s,[125] with the oldest known cat, Creme Puff, dying at a verified age of 38.[126]

Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females.[122]:35 Having a cat neutered confers health benefits, because castrated males cannot develop testicular cancer, spayed females cannot develop uterine or ovarian cancer, and both have a reduced risk of mammary cancer.[127]

Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats.[128]:45[129]:1358 [130][131][132][133]

Diseases

A wide range of health problems may affect cats, including infectious diseases, parasites, injuries, and chronic disease. Vaccinations are available for many of these diseases, and domestic cats are regularly given treatments to eliminate parasites such as worms and fleas.[134]

Genetics

The domesticated cat and its closest wild ancestor are both diploid organisms that possess 38 chromosomes[135] and roughly 20,000 genes.[136] About 250 heritable genetic disorders have been identified in cats, many similar to human inborn errors.[137] The high level of similarity among the metabolism of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as animal models in the study of the human diseases.[138][139]

Behavior

Cat lying on rice straw
 
Cat lying on rice straw
 
 
Angry domestic cat

Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night.[140][141] The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be more active in the morning and evening, as a response to greater human activity at these times.[142] Although they spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their home, housecats can range many hundreds of meters from this central point, and are known to establish territories that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares (17–69 acres).[141]

Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average. Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours. The term "cat nap" for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep (lightly) for a brief period. While asleep, cats experience short periods of rapid eye movement sleep often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are dreaming.[143]

Sociability

 
Social grooming

Although wildcats are solitary, the social behavior of domestic cats is much more variable and ranges from widely dispersed individuals to feral cat colonies that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females.[144][145] Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others.[35] Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories.[111] These territories are marked by urine spraying, by rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation.[111] Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts. Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and growling and, if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks. Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a pack mentality and always hunt alone.[146]

 
Cat with an Alaskan Malamute dog

However, some pet cats are poorly socialized. In particular, older cats may show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which may include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression.[147]

Though cats and dogs are often characterized as natural enemies, they can live together if correctly socialized.[148]

Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals. Ethologically, the human keeper of a cat may function as a sort of surrogate for the cat's mother,[149] and adult housecats live their lives in a kind of extended kittenhood,[150] a form of behavioral neoteny. The high-pitched sounds housecats make to solicit food may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly difficult for humans to ignore.[151]

Domestic cats' scent rubbing behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding.[152]

Communication

Domestic cats use many vocalizations for communication, including purring, trilling, hissing, growling/snarling, grunting, and several different forms of meowing.[8] By contrast, feral cats are generally silent.[153]:208 Their types of body language, including position of ears and tail, relaxation of the whole body, and kneading of the paws, are all indicators of mood. The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats;[154][155] for example, a raised tail acts as a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group's social hierarchy, with dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate animals.[155] Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed by social grooming, which is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head.[145]

Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and nursing kittens. Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed,[156][157] or eating. The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive. The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound.[158] It was until recent times,[when?] believed that only the cats of the Felis genus could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard) also produce non-continuous sounds, called chuffs, similar to purring, but only when exhaling.[159]

Grooming

 
The hooked papillae on a cat's tongue act like a hairbrush to help clean and detangle fur.
 
File:Housecat Grooming Itself.webm
 
A tabby housecat uses its brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it.

Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coats to keep them clean.[160] The cat's tongue has backwards-facing spines about 500 μm long, which are called papillae. These contain keratin which makes them rigid[161] so the papillae act like a hairbrush. Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate hairballs of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming. These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long. Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through the gut, as well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush.[160]

Fighting

Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females.[162] Among feral cats, the most common reason for cat fighting is competition between two males to mate with a female. In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male.[163] Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home.[162] Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens. Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones.[164]

 
An arched back, raised fur and an open-mouthed hiss can all be signs of aggression in a domestic cat.

When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting.[154] Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward. They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent. Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites. Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs.[165]

Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears. However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations. Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated. In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus.[166] Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose.[167]

Hunting and feeding

 
A cat that is playing with a caught mouse. Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust them before making a kill.
 
 
A domestic cat with its prey

Cats hunt small prey, primarily birds and rodents,[168] and are often used as a form of pest control.[169][170] Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1.4 to 3.7 billion birds and 6.9 to 20.7 billion mammals annually.[171][172] The bulk of predation in the United States is done by 80 million feral and stray cats. Effective measures to reduce this population are elusive, meeting opposition from cat enthusiasts.[171][172] In the case of free-ranging pets, equipping cats with bells and not letting them out at night will reduce wildlife predation.[168]

Free-fed feral cats and house cats tend to consume many small meals in a single day, although the frequency and size of meals varies between individuals.[146] Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or waiting in ambush until an animal comes close enough to be captured.[173] Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds.[174]:153

Perhaps the best known element of cats' hunting behavior, which is commonly misunderstood and often appalls cat owners because it looks like torture, is that cats often appear to "play" with prey by releasing it after capture. This behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat.[175] This behavior is referred to in the idiom "cat-and-mouse game" or simply "cat and mouse".

Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians. Ethologist Paul Leyhausen proposed that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to the dominance hierarchy, in which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top.[176]Anthropologist and zoologist Desmond Morris, in his 1986 book Catwatching, suggests, when cats bring home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their human to hunt, or trying to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten".[177][178] Morris's hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement with raising kittens.[174]:153

Domestic cats select food based on its temperature, smell and texture; they dislike chilled foods and respond most strongly to moist foods rich in amino acids, which are similar to meat.[86][146] Cats may reject novel flavors (a response termed neophobia) and learn quickly to avoid foods that have tasted unpleasant in the past.[146] They may also avoid sugary foods and milk. Most adult cats are lactose intolerant; the sugars in milk are not easily digested and may cause soft stools or diarrhea.[146][179] They can also develop odd eating habits. Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal. This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten.[180][181]

Though cats usually prey on animals less than half their size, a feral cat in Australia has been photographed killing an adult pademelon of around the cat's weight at 4 kg (8.8 lb).[182]

Since cats lack sufficient lips to create suction,[183] they use a lapping method with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths. Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it like a corkscrew, drawing water upwards.[184]

Running

A veterinarian and columnist for Mercola Healthy Pets, Karen Shaw Becker, has compiled a list of the fastest and most athletic cat breeds. First is the Egyptian Mau, which can clock up to 30 miles per hour, faster than any other domestic cat breed in the world.[185][unreliable source] In descending order, Becker lists the other swift domestic cats: the Abyssinian cat, the Somali cat, the Bengal cat, the Savannah cat, the Manx cat ("He can jump and accelerate through the house like there's no tomorrow. Watch for his sharp turns and quick stops – you'll think he's a mini sports car in the shape of a cat."), the Siamese cat, the Ocicat, and the Oriental Shorthair.

The average house cat can outspeed the average house dog (excluding those born to run and race, such as the greyhound and the cheetah), but they excel at sprinting, not at long-distance running.[citation needed]

Play

 
Play fight between kittens, age 14 weeks
 
Cat playing with a lizard
 
Cat playing with a lizard

Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play. This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to stalk, capture, and kill prey.[186]Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans. This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals.[187]

Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest (they become habituated) in a toy they have played with before.[188] Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry.[189] String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into the intestines, a medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death.[190] Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a laser pointer's dot, which cats may chase.[191]

Reproduction

 
When cats mate, the tomcat (male) bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to mating known as lordosis behavior.
 
Radiography of a pregnant cat (about one month and a half)

Female cats are seasonally polyestrous, which means they may have many periods of heat over the course of a year, the season beginning in spring and ending in late autumn. Heat periods occur about every two weeks and last about 4 to 7 days.[192] Multiple males will be attracted to a female in heat. The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate. At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate. The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120–150 backwards-pointing penile spines, which are about 1 mm long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which acts to induce ovulation. This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second (or more) mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception.[193]

After mating, the female washes her vulva thoroughly. If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female will attack him. After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat.[192]

Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate.[194] Furthermore, cats are superfecund; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers.[192]

 
A newborn kitten

At 124 hours after conception, the morula forms. At 148 hours, early blastocysts form. At 10–12 days, implantation occurs.[195][196]

The gestation period for cats is between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 66 days.[197] The size of a litter usually is three to five kittens, with the first litter usually smaller than subsequent litters. Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks old, and cats normally reach sexual maturity at 5–10 months (females) and at 5–7 months (males), although this can vary depending on breed. Females can have two to three litters per year, so may produce up to 150 kittens in their breeding span of around ten years.[192]

Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age,[198] when they are ready to leave their mother. They can be surgically sterilized (spayed or castrated) as early as 7 weeks to limit unwanted reproduction.[199] This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, territory marking (spraying urine) in males and yowling (calling) in females. Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed before puberty, at about three to six months.[200] In the US, about 80% of household cats are neutered.[201]

Ecology

Habitats

 
A cat in snowy weather

Cats are a cosmopolitan species and are found across much of the world.[40] Geneticist Stephen James O'Brien, of the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, Maryland, remarked on how successful cats have been in evolutionary terms: "Cats are one of evolution's most charismatic creatures. They can live on the highest mountains and in the hottest deserts."[202] They are extremely adaptable and are now present on all continents except Antarctica, and on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the Kerguelen Islands.[203][204]

Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands.[205] Their habitats even include small oceanic islands with no human inhabitants.[206] Further, the close relatives of domestic cats, the African wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica) and the Arabian sand cat (Felis margarita) both inhabit desert environments,[30] and domestic cats still show similar adaptations and behaviors.[33] The cat's ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's worst invasive species.[207]

As domestic cats are little altered from wildcats, they can readily interbreed. This hybridization poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in Scotland and Hungary and possibly also the Iberian Peninsula.[43]

Feral cats

 
Feral farm cat

Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state. They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas.[10] The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the US feral population range from 25 to 60 million.[10] Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in large colonies, which occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food.[208] Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the Colosseum and Forum Romanum, with cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers.[209]

Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin.[210] One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed 'trap-neuter-return', where the cats are trapped, neutered, immunized against diseases such as rabies and the feline Panleukopenia and Leukemia viruses, and then released.[211] Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again. Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives. Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced.[208]

Impact on prey species

 
Carrying half of a rabbit

To date, little scientific data is available to assess the impact of cat predation on prey populations outside of agricultural situations. Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill, mainly catching small mammals, but also birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates.[168][212] Hunting by domestic cats may be contributing to the decline in the numbers of birds in urban areas, although the importance of this effect remains controversial.[213] In the wild, the introduction of feral cats during human settlement can threaten native species with extinction.[206] In many cases, controlling or eliminating the populations of non-native cats can produce a rapid recovery in native animals.[214] However, the ecological role of introduced cats can be more complicated. For example, cats can control the numbers of rats, which also prey on birds' eggs and young, so a cat population can protect an endangered bird species by suppressing mesopredators.[215]

In isolated landmasses, such as Australasia, there are often no other native, medium-sized quadrupedal predators (including other feline species); this tends to exacerbate the impact of feral cats on small native animals.[216] Native species such as the New Zealand kakapo and the Australian bettong, for example, tend to be more ecologically vulnerable and behaviorally "naive", when faced with predation by cats.[217] Feral cats have had a major impact on these native species and have played a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of many animals.[218]

Even in places with ancient and numerous cat populations, such as Western Europe, cats appear to be growing in number and independently of their environments' carrying capacity (such as the numbers of prey available).[219][220] This may be explained, at least in part, by an abundance of food, from sources including feeding by pet owners and scavenging. For instance, research in Britain suggests that a high proportion of cats hunt only "recreationally",[220] and in South Sweden, where research in 1982 found that the population density of cats was as high as 2,000 per square kilometre (5,200/sq mi).[219]

In agricultural settings, cats can be effective at keeping mouse and rat populations low, but only if rodent harborage locations are kept under control.[221][222] While cats are effective at preventing rodent population explosions, they are not effective for eliminating pre-existing severe infestations.[223]

Impact on birds

 
A black cat eating a house sparrow

The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds. UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64.8 million bird deaths each year.[168] A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States.[224] Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of house sparrowmortality is linked to the domestic cat.[225] In the recovery of ringed robins (Erithacus rubecula) and dunnocks (Prunella modularis), 31% of deaths were a result of cat predation.[226] In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as coyotes which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as opossums and raccoons on bird numbers and variety.[227] The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis.

On islands, birds can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet.[228] In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a 'mesopredator release' effect;[229] where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey. Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction. The South Island piopio, Chatham rail,[226] the New Zealand merganser,[230] and the common diving petrel[231] are a few from a long list, with the most extreme case being the flightless Lyall's wren, which was driven to extinction only a few years after its discovery.[232][233]

Some of the same factors that have promoted adaptive radiation of island avifauna over evolutionary time appear to promote vulnerability to non-native species in modern time. The susceptibility of many island birds is undoubtedly due to evolution in the absence of mainland predators, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and extended incubation periods.[234] The loss of flight, or reduced flying ability is also characteristic of many island endemics.[235] These biological aspects have increased vulnerability to extinction in the presence of introduced species, such as the domestic cat.[236] Equally, behavioral traits exhibited by island species, such as "predatory naivety"[237] and ground-nesting,[234] have also contributed to their susceptibility.

Interaction with humans

 
A woman holding two cats

Cats are common pets throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million.[14] Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women,[238] a 2007 Gallup poll reported that men and women in the United States of America were equally likely to own a cat.[239]

As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international fur[240] and leather industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys;[241] and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively[242] (about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat).[243] This use has been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union.[244] Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise of witchcraft,[245] and are still made into blankets in Switzerland as folk remedies believed to help rheumatism.[246] In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of quantum mechanics in the Schrödinger's catthought experiment.

A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations (such as the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies's one[247]) and over the Internet,[248][249] but such a task does not seem simple to achieve. General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million.[250][251][252][253][254][255]

Cat show

A cat show is a judged event in which the owners of cats compete to win titles in various cat registering organizations by entering their cats to be judged after a breed standard.[256][257] Both pedigreed and companion (or moggy) cats are admissible, although the rules differ from organization to organization. Cats are compared to a breed standard,[258] and the owners of those judged to be closest to it are awarded a prize. Moggies are judged based on their temperament. Often, at the end of the year, all of the points accrued at various shows are added up and more national and regional titles are awarded.

Cat café

A cat café is a theme café whose attraction is cats that can be watched and played with.[259]

Ailurophobia

Ailurophobia is a human phobia of cats; however, the term is often associated with humans that have a hatred of cats.[260]

Cat bites

Cats may bite humans when provoked, during play or when aggressive. Complications from cat bites can develop.[261] A cat bite differs from the bites of other pets. This is because the teeth of a cat are sharp and pointed causing deep punctures. Skin usually closes rapidly over the bite and traps microorganisms that cause infection.[262][261]

Infections transmitted from cats to humans

Cats can be infected or infested with viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, arthropods or worms that can transmit diseases to humans.[263] In some cases, the cat exhibits no symptoms of the disease,[264] However, the same disease can then become evident in a human. The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and immune status of the person. Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat feces and parasites exiting the cat's body.[263][265] Some of the infections of most concern include salmonella, cat-scratch disease and toxoplasmosis.[264]

History and mythology

 
The ancient Egyptians mummifieddead cats out of respect in the same way that they mummified people.[266]
 
Ancient Roman mosaic of a cat killing a partridge from the House of the Faun in Pompeii
 
A 19th-century drawing of a tabby cat

Traditionally, historians tended to think ancient Egypt was the site of cat domestication, owing to the clear depictions of house cats in Egyptian paintings about 3,600 years old.[30]However, in 2004, a Neolithic grave excavated in Shillourokambos, Cyprus, contained the skeletons, laid close to one another, of both a human and a cat. The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, pushing back the earliest known feline–human association significantly.[17][267][268] The cat specimen is large and closely resembles the African wildcat, rather than present-day domestic cats. This discovery, combined with genetic studies, suggests cats were probably domesticated in the Middle East, in the Fertile Crescent around the time of the development of agriculture, and then were brought to Cyprus and Egypt.[16][21] Direct evidence for the domestication of cats 5,300 years ago in Quanhucun, Chinahas been published by archaeologists and paleontologists from the University of Washington and Chinese Academy of Sciences. The cats are believed to have been attracted to the village by rodents, which in turn were attracted by grain cultivated and stored by humans.[269]

In ancient Egypt, cats were sacred animals, with the goddess Bastet often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness.[270]:220 Killing a cat was absolutely forbidden[266] and the Greek historian Herodotus reports that, whenever a household cat died, the entire family would mourn and shave their eyebrows.[266] Families took their dead cats to the sacred city of Bubastis,[266] where they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories.[266] Domestic cats were probably first introduced to Greece and southern Italy in the fifth century BC by the Phoenicians.[271] The earliest unmistakable evidence of the Greeks having domestic cats comes from two coins from Magna Graecia dating to the mid-fifth century BC showing Iokastos and Phalanthos, the legendary founders of Rhegion and Taras respectively, playing with their pet cats.[272]:57–58[273]

Housecats seem to have been extremely rare among the ancient Greeks and Romans;[273] Herodotus expressed astonishment at the domestic cats in Egypt, because he had only ever seen wildcats.[273] Even during later times, weasels were far more commonly kept as pets[273] and weasels, not cats, were seen as the ideal rodent-killers.[273] The usual ancient Greek word for "cat" was ailouros, meaning "thing with the waving tail",[272]:57[273] but this word could also be applied to any of the "various long-tailed carnivores kept for catching mice".[273] Cats are rarely mentioned in ancient Greek literature,[273] but Aristotle does remark in his History of Animals that "female cats are naturally lecherous."[272]:74[273] The Greeks later syncretized their own goddess Artemis with the Egyptian goddess Bastet, adopting Bastet's associations with cats and ascribing them to Artemis.[272]:77–79 In Ovid's Metamorphoses, when the gods flee to Egypt and take animal forms, the goddess Diana (the Roman equivalent of Artemis) turns into a cat.[272]:79 Cats eventually displaced ferrets as the pest control of choice because they were more pleasant to have around the house and were more enthusiastic hunters of mice.[274] During the Middle Ages, many of Artemis's associations with cats were grafted onto the Virgin Mary.[274] Cats are often shown in icons of Annunciation and of the Holy Family[274] and, according to Italian folklore, on the same night that Mary gave birth to Jesus, a virgin cat in Bethlehem gave birth to a kitten.[274] Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during the Age of Discovery, as ships' cats were carried on sailing ships to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms.[270]:223

Several ancient religions believed cats are exalted souls, companions or guides for humans, that are all-knowing but mute so they cannot influence decisions made by humans. In Japan, the maneki neko cat is a symbol of good fortune.[275] In Norse mythology, Freyja, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats.[276]In Jewish legend, the first cat was living in the house of the first man Adam as a pet that got rid of mice.[277] The cat was once partnering with the first dog before the latter broke an oath they had made which resulted in enmity between the descendants of these two animals.[277] It is also written that neither cats nor foxes are represented in the water, while every other animal has an incarnation species in the water.[277] Although no species are sacred in Islam, cats are revered by Muslims. Some Western writers have stated Muhammad had a favorite cat, Muezza.[278] He is reported to have loved cats so much, "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it".[279] The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later Sufi saint, Ahmed ar-Rifa'i, centuries after Muhammad.[280] One of the companions of Muhammad was known as "Abu Hurayrah" (Father of the Kitten), in reference to his documented affection to cats.[281]

Superstitions and cat burning

 
Some cultures are superstitious about black cats, ascribing either good or bad luck to them.

Many cultures have negative superstitions about cats. An example would be the belief that a black cat "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' familiarsused to augment a witch's powers and skills. The killing of cats in Medieval Ypres, Belgium, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day Kattenstoet (cat parade).[282] In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment. According to Norman Davies, the assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally carbonized".[283]

"It was the custom to burn a basket, barrel, or sack full of live cats, which was hung from a tall mast in the midst of the bonfire; sometimes a fox was burned. The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck. The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands. In 1648 Louis XIV, crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall. But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the midsummer bonfire in Paris. At Metz midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed in wicker cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people. Similarly at Gap, in the department of the Hautes-Alpes, cats used to be roasted over the midsummer bonfire."[284]

According to a myth in many cultures, cats have multiple lives. In many countries, they are believed to have nine lives, but in Italy, Germany, Greece, Brazil and some Spanish-speaking regions, they are said to have seven lives,[285][286] while in Turkish and Arabic traditions, the number of lives is six.[287] The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations. Also lending credence to this myth is the fact that falling cats often land on their feet, using an instinctive righting reflex to twist their bodies around. Nonetheless, cats can still be injured or killed by a high fall.[288]

References

  1. a b c d e f Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Species Felis catus". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 534–535. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. a b Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema naturae (in Latin). 1 (10th ed.). Stockholm: Lars Salvius. p. 42. Archived from the original on 31 August 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2017 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library.
  3. ^ "ITIS Standard Report Page: Felis catus domestica". ITIS Online Database. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
  4. ^ "ITIS Standard Report Page: Felis catus". ITIS Online Database. Reston, Virginia: Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
  5. ^ HousecatAmerican Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2010. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2010 – via Yahoo.com.
  6. a b Moelk, Mildred (April 1944). "Vocalizing in the House-cat; A Phonetic and Functional Study". The American Journal of Psychology57 (2): 184–205. doi:10.2307/1416947. JSTOR 1416947.
  7. ^ Tucker, Abigail (2016). The Lion in the Living Room: How House Cats Tamed Us and Took Over the World. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 1476738238. Archived from the original on 14 November 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  8. a b c Rochlitz, Irene (2007). The Welfare of Cats. "Animal Welfare" series. Berlin: Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 141–175. ISBN 1-4020-6143-9.
  9. ^ Impact of Feral Cats in Australia Archived 20 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ "Cats Responsible For Driving Many Species To Extinction". IFLScience. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  11. ^ Winters, L.; Walter, G. E. (May 2006). "Impacts of Feral and Free-ranging Cats on Bird Species of Conservation Concern" (PDF). ABCBirds.org. American Bird Conservancy. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 April 2015.
  12. a b c d Wade, Nicholas (2007). "Study Traces Cat's Ancestry to Middle East". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 2 April 2008.
  13. ^ Vigne, J. D.; Guilaine, J.; Debue, K.; Haye, L.; Gérard, P. (2004). "Early taming of the cat in Cyprus". Science304 (5668): 259. doi:10.1126/science.1095335. PMID 15073370.
  14. a b Driscoll, C. A.; Menotti-Raymond, M.; Roca, A. L.; Hupe, K.; Johnson, W. E.; Geffen, E.; Harley, E. H.; Delibes, M.; Pontier, D.; Kitchener, A. C.; Yamaguchi, N.; O'Brien, S. J.; Macdonald, D. W. (2007). "The Near Eastern Origin of Cat Domestication". Science317(5837): 519–523. Bibcode:2007Sci...317..519D. doi:10.1126/science.1139518. ISSN 0036-8075. PMC 5612713 Freely accessible. PMID 17600185.
  15. a b c "Oldest Known Pet Cat? 9,500-year-old Burial Found on Cyprus". National Geographic News. National Geographic Society. 2004. Archived from the original on 3 March 2007. Retrieved 6 March2007.
  16. ^ Vigne, J.-D.; Evin, A.; Cucchi, T.; Dai, L.; Yu, C.; Hu, S.; Soulages, N.; Wang, W.; Sun, Z. (2016). "Earliest 'Domestic' Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)". PLOS One11 (1): e0147295. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1147295V. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147295. PMC 4723238 Freely accessible. PMID 26799955.
  17. ^ Grimm, David (27 January 2016). "Were cats domesticated more than once?". sciencemag.org. Archived from the original on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  18. ^ Sample, Ian (19 June 2017). "Africats to the Purr-ymids: DNA study reveals long tale of cat domestication". theguardian.com. Archivedfrom the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
  19. a b Ottoni, Claudio; Van Neer, Wim; De Cupere, Bea; Daligault, Julien; Guimaraes, Silvia; Peters, Joris; Spassov, Nikolai; Prendergast, Mary E.; Boivin, Nicole; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; Bălăşescu, Adrian; Becker, Cornelia; Benecke, Norbert; Boroneant, Adina; Buitenhuis, Hijlke; Chahoud, Jwana; Crowther, Alison; Llorente, Laura; Manaseryan, Nina; Monchot, Hervé; Onar, Vedat; Osypińska, Marta; Putelat, Olivier; Quintana Morales, Eréndira M.; Studer, Jacqueline; Wierer, Ursula; Decorte, Ronny; Grange, Thierry; Geigl, Eva-Maria (2017). "The palaeogenetics of cat dispersal in the ancient world". Nature Ecology & Evolution. Nature Publishing Group. 1 (7): 0139. doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0139. ISSN 2397-334X.
  20. ^ Thompson, Andrea. "What's the Most Popular Pet?". LiveScience. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  21.  "Statistics about pets in the UK" Archived 26 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. 2010, Society for Companion Animal Studies. Retrieved 15 November 2016
  22. ^ Johnson, Warren; O'Brien, Stephen J. (1997). "Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Felidae Using 16S rRNA and NADH-5 Mitochondrial Genes". Journal of Molecular Evolution44: S98–S116. Bibcode:1997JMolE..44S..98J. doi:10.1007/PL00000060. PMID 9071018.
  23. ^ "ITIS Standard Report Page: Felis". ITIS Online Database. Archived from the original on 19 May 2012. Retrieved 14 December2011.
  24. ^ Stefoff, Rebecca (November 2003). Cats. New York: Benchmark Books. p. 34. ISBN 0-7614-1577-7.
  25. ^ Yamaguchi, N.; Kitchener, A.; Driscoll, C.; Nussberger, B. (2015). "Felis silvestris (Wildcat, Wild Cat)". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Archived from the original on 16 December 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  26. ^ Francis, Richard C. (2015). Domesticated: Evolution in a Man-Made World. W. W. Norton & Company.
  27. ^ House Cat Origin Traced to Middle Eastern Wildcat AncestorArchived 31 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Brian Handwerk for National Geographic News, 28 June 2007
  28. a b c d e f g Driscoll, C. A.; MacDonald, D. W.; O'Brien, Stephen J. (2009). "In the Light of Evolution III: Two Centuries of Darwin Sackler Colloquium: From Wild Animals to Domestic Pets – An Evolutionary View of Domestication". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America106 (S1): 9971–9978. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.9971D. doi:10.1073/pnas.0901586106. PMC 2702791 Freely accessible. PMID 19528637.
  29.  House Cat Origin Traced to Middle Eastern Wildcat AncestorArchived 31 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Brian Handwerk for National Geographic News, 28 June 2007
  30. a b c d e f g Driscoll, C. A.; MacDonald, D. W.; O'Brien, Stephen J. (2009). "In the Light of Evolution III: Two Centuries of Darwin Sackler Colloquium: From Wild Animals to Domestic Pets – An Evolutionary View of Domestication". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America106 (S1): 9971–9978. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.9971D. doi:10.1073/pnas.0901586106. PMC 2702791. PMID 19528637.
  31. a b c Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Species Felis silvestris". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 536–537. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  32. ^ "Opinion 2027". Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature60. 2003. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012.
  33. a b c d e f g MacDonald, M. L.; Rogers, Q. R.; Morris, J. G. (1984). "Nutrition of the domestic cat, a mammalian carnivore". Annual Review of Nutrition4: 521–562. doi:10.1146/annurev.nu.04.070184.002513. PMID 6380542.
  34. ^ Erxleben, J. C. P. (1777). Systema regni animalis. p. 520. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library.
  35. a b Baron, Alan; Stewart, C. N.; Warren, J. M. (1 January 1957). "Patterns of Social Interaction in Cats (Felis domestica)". Behaviour11(1): 56–66. doi:10.1163/156853956X00084. JSTOR 4532869.
  36. ^ "Catalogue of the Specimens of Caucasian Large Mammalian Fauna in the Collection". National Museum of Georgia. Archived from the original on 21 March 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
  37. ^ Johnson, Warren E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W. J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E.; O'Brien, Stephen J. (2006). "The Late Miocene Radiation of Modern Felidae: A Genetic Assessment". Science311(5757): 73–77. Bibcode:2006Sci...311...73J. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146.
  38. a b c Mattern, Michelle Y.; McLennan, Deborah A. (2000). "Phylogeny and Speciation of Felids". Cladistics16 (2): 232–253. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2000.tb00354.x.
  39. ^ Masuda, R.; Lopez, J. V.; Slattery, J. P.; Yuhki,, N.; O'Brien, Stephen J. (1996). "Molecular Phylogeny of Mitochondrial Cytochrome b and 12S rRNA Sequences in the Felidae: Ocelot and Domestic Cat Lineages". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution6 (3): 351–365. doi:10.1006/mpev.1996.0085. PMID 8975691.
  40. a b Lipinski, Monika J.; Froenicke, Lutz; Baysac, Kathleen C.; Billings, Nicholas C.; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Levy, Alon M.; Longeri, Maria; Niini, Tirri; Ozpinar, Haydar (January 2008). "The Ascent of Cat Breeds: Genetic Evaluations of Breeds and Worldwide Random-bred Populations". Genomics91 (1): 12–21. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2007.10.009. PMC 2267438. PMID 18060738.
  41. a b c Cameron-Beaumont, Charlotte; Lowe, Sarah E.; Bradshaw, John W. S. (2002). "Evidence Suggesting Pre-adaptation to Domestication Throughout the Small Felidae" (PDF)Biological Journal of the Linnean Society75 (3): 361–366. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8312.2002.00028.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
  42. a b Bradshawa, J. W. S.; Horsfield, G. F.; Allen, J. A.; Robinson, I. H. (1999). "Feral Cats: Their Role in the Population Dynamics of Felis catus". Applied Animal Behaviour Science65 (3): 273–283. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(99)00086-6.
  43. a b Oliveira, R.; Godinho, R.; Randi, E.; Alves, P. C. (2008). "Hybridization Versus Conservation: Are Domestic Cats Threatening the Genetic Integrity of Wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris) in Iberian Peninsula?". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences363 (1505): 2953–2961. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0052. PMC 2606743. PMID 18522917.
  44. ^ Fogle, Bruce, ed. (1981). Interrelations Between People and Pets. Charles C. Thomas Publications. ISBN 978-0-398-04169-4.
  45. ^ O'Connor, T. P. (2007). "Wild or Domestic? Biometric Variation in the Cat Felis silvestris". International Journal of Osteoarchaeology17 (6): 581–595. doi:10.1002/oa.913.
  46. ^ Harper, Douglas (ed.). "cat". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 20 September 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
  47. ^ McKnight, George H. (1923). English Words and Their Background. New York: D. Appleton and Company. p. 130. Archived from the original on 5 July 2017 – via Questia.
  48. ^ "cat". The Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  49. a b Huehnergard, John. "Qitta: Arabic Cats". Classical Arabic Humanities in Their Own Terms.
  50. ^ Savignac, Jean-Paul (2004). "chat". Dictionnaire français-gaulois. Paris: Errance. p. 82.
  51. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013). Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers. p. 281f. ISBN 978-90-04-18340-7.
  52. ^ "Puss". The Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  53. ^ "puss". Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Gramercy (Random House). 1996. p. 1571.
  54. ^ "What do you call a group of ...?". Oxford Dictionaries Online. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  55. ^ "tom cat, tom-cat". The Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  56. ^ "gib, n.2". The Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  57. ^ "queen cat". The Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 1 October2012.
  58. ^ "sire". The Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  59. ^ "Dam, n.2". The Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 1 October2012.
  60. ^ "catling". The Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  61. ^ Hartwell, Sarah (2002–2011). "Dwarf, Midget and Miniature Cats (Including 'Tea-cup' Cats)". MessyBeast.com. self-published. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 27 January2015.[self-published source]
  62. a b Wilson, Julia (2002–2008). "Cat World Records". Cat-World.com.au. self-published. Archived from the original on 1 August 2008. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
  63. ^ "Feline Veterinary care by The Boston Cat Hospital/Feline Fast Cats". Boston Cat Hospital. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
  64. ^ "Domestic Cat". Animal Bytes. SeaWorld Parks and Entertainment. 2011. Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2011. This tertiary source reuses information from other sources without citing them in detail.
  65. a b Walker, Warren F. (1982). Study of the Cat with Reference to Human Beings (4th Revised ed.). Thomson Learning (Cengage). ISBN 978-0-03-057914-1.
  66. ^ Gillis, Rick, ed. (22 July 2002). "Cat Skeleton". Zoolab. La Crosse: University of Wisconsin. Archived from the original on 6 December 2006. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
  67. a b c d e *Case, Linda P. (2003). The Cat: Its Behavior, Nutrition, and Health. Ames: Iowa State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8138-0331-9.
  68. a b Smith, Patricia; Tchernov, Eitan (1992). Structure, Function and Evolution of teeth. Freund Publishing House. p. 217. ISBN 978-965-222-270-1.
  69. ^ Carr, William H. A. (1 January 1978). The New Basic Book of the Cat. Scribner's. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-684-15549-4.
  70. ^ Lacquaniti, F.; Grasso, R.; Zago, M. (1 August 1999). "Motor Patterns in Walking". News Physiol. Sci14 (4): 168–174. PMID 11390844.
  71. ^ Christensen, Wendy (2004). Outwitting Cats. Globe Pequot. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-59228-240-1.
  72. ^ Russell, Anthony P.; Bryant, Harold N. (2001). "Claw Retraction and Protraction in the Carnivora: The Cheetah (Acinonyx Jubatus) as an Atypical Felid". Journal of Zoology254 (1): 67–76. doi:10.1017/S0952836901000565.
  73. ^ Armes, Annetta F. (22 December 1900). "Outline of Cat Lessons". The School JournalLXI: 659. Retrieved 12 November 2007.
  74. a b Danforth, C. H. (April 1947). "Heredity of polydactyly in the cat"(PDF)The Journal of Heredity38 (4): 107–112. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jhered.a105701. PMID 20242531. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 September 2013.
  75. ^ Lettice, L. A.; Hill, A. E.; Devenney, P. S.; Hill, R. E. (April 2008). "Point mutations in a distant sonic hedgehog cis-regulator generate a variable regulatory output responsible for preaxial polydactyly". Human Molecular Genetics17 (7): 978–985. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddm370. PMID 18156157.
  76. ^ US National Research Council Subcommittee on Dog and Cat Nutrition (2006). Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. Washington DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. p. 292. ISBN 978-0-309-08628-8.
  77. ^ Kahn, Cynthia M.; Line, Scott (2007). Hollander, Joseph Lee, ed. The Merck/Merial Manual for Pet Health. Merck & Co. ISBN 978-0-911910-99-5.
  78. ^ "How do cats sweat?". CatHealth.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  79. ^ Adams, T.; Morgan, M. L.; Hunter, W. S.; Holmes, K. R. (1970). "Temperature Regulation of the Unanesthetized Cat During Mild Cold and Severe Heat Stress". Journal of Applied Physiology29 (6): 852–858. doi:10.1152/jappl.1970.29.6.852. PMID 5485356.
  80. a b US National Research Council Committee on Animal Nutrition(1986). Nutrient Requirements of Cats (2nd ed.). Washington DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Archived from the original on 15 August 2010.
  81. ^ Prentiss, Phoebe G. (1959). "Hydropenia in Cat and Dog: Ability of the Cat to Meet its Water Requirements Solely from a Diet of Fish or Meat". American Journal of Physiology196 (3): 625–632. doi:10.1152/ajplegacy.1959.196.3.625. PMID 13627237.
  82. ^ Wolf, A. V. (1959). "Potability of Sea Water with Special Reference to the Cat". American Journal of Physiology196 (3): 633–641. doi:10.1152/ajplegacy.1959.196.3.633. PMID 13627238.
  83. ^ Fraser, Andrew F. (2012). Feline Behaviour and Welfare. Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-78064-121-8. Archived from the original on 20 February 2018.
  84. a b Zoran, D. L. (2002). "The Carnivore Connection to Nutrition in Cats" (PDF)Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association221 (11): 1559–1567. doi:10.2460/javma.2002.221.1559. PMID 12479324. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 May 2010.
  85. ^ Gray, C. M.; Sellon, R. K.; Freeman, L. M. (2004). "Nutritional Adequacy of Two Vegan Diets for Cats". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association225 (11): 1670–1675. doi:10.2460/javma.2004.225.1670. PMID 15626215.
  86. a b Zaghini, G.; Biagi, G. (2005). "Nutritional Peculiarities and Diet Palatability in the Cat". Vet. Res. Commun29 (Supplement 2): 39–44. doi:10.1007/s11259-005-0009-1. PMID 16244923.
  87. ^ "Why Do Cats Eat Grass?". AnimalPlanet.com. 2012-05-15. Archived from the original on 3 April 2017. Retrieved 2 April 2017.
  88. ^ Morris, J. G.; Rogers, Q. R. (1 December 1978). "Arginine: An Essential Amino Acid for the Cat". Journal of Nutrition108 (12): 1944–1953. doi:10.1093/jn/108.12.1944. PMID 722344.
  89. a b Bauer, J. (1998). Nutritional Uniqueness of Cats. Veterinary Quarterly,20(Sup1), 78-79.
  90. ^ "the definition of amino acid". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 22 February2017.
  91. a b c d Schullerlevis, G.; Mehta, P.; Rudelli, R.; Sturman, J. (1990). "Immunological Consequences of Taurine Deficiency in Cats". Journal of Leukocyte Biology47 (4): 321–331.
  92. ^ US National Research Council Subcommittee on Dog and Cat Nutrition (2006). "The Role of Vitamins and Minerals in the Diet for Cats". Nutrient Requirements of Cats and Dogs. Washington DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. ISBN 978-0-309-08628-8. Archived from the original on 7 September 2006.
  93. a b Morris, J. (2002). "Idiosyncratic nutrient requirements of cats appear to be diet-induced evolutionary adaptations". Nutrition Research Reviews15 (1): 153–168. doi:10.1079/nrr200238. PMID 19087402.
  94. a b c d e MacDonald, M. L.; Rogers, Q. R. (1984). "Nutrition of the domestic cat, a mammalian carnivore". Annual Review of Nutrition4: 521–562. doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.4.1.521.
  95. ^ "The Nutritional Requirements of the Cat". Nutrition Reviews40 (9): 283–285. 1982. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.1982.tb05341.x.[full citation needed]
  96. ^ Girard, N.; Servet, E.; Hennet, P.; Biourge, V. (2010). "Tooth Resorption and Vitamin D 3 Status in Cats Fed Premium Dry Diets". Journal of Veterinary Dentistry27 (3): 142–147. doi:10.1177/089875641002700301. PMID 21038831.
  97. a b Morris, James G (1999). "Ineffective vitamin D synthesis in cats is reversed by an inhibitor of 7-dehydrocholesterol-delta(super 7)-reductase". The Journal of Nutrition129 (4): 903–908. doi:10.1093/jn/129.4.903. PMID 10203568.
  98. ^ MacDonald, M. L.; Anderson, B. C.; Rogers, Q. R; Buffington, C. A. (1984). "Essential fatty acid requirements of cats: Pathology of essential fatty acid deficiency". American Journal of Veterinary Research45(7): 1310–1317. Archived from the original on 20 February 2018.
  99. ^ Ollivier, F. J.; Samuelson, D. A.; Brooks, D. E.; Lewis, P. A.; Kallberg, M. E.; Komaromy, A. M. (2004). "Comparative Morphology of the Tapetum Lucidum (among Selected Species)". Veterinary Ophthalmology7 (1): 11–22. doi:10.1111/j.1463-5224.2004.00318.x. PMID 14738502.
  100. a b Malmström, T.; Kröger, R. H. (2006). "Pupil shapes and lens optics in the eyes of terrestrial vertebrates". Journal of Experimental Biology209 (Pt. 1): 18–25. doi:10.1242/jeb.01959. PMID 16354774.
  101. ^ Hammond, P.; Mouat, G. S. V. (1985). "The relationship between feline pupil size and luminance". Experimental Brain Research59 (3): 485–490. doi:10.1007/BF00261338.
  102. ^ Loop, M. S.; Bruce, L. L. (1978). "Cat Color Vision: The Effect of Stimulus Size". Science199 (4334): 1221–1222. Bibcode:1978Sci...199.1221L. doi:10.1126/science.628838. PMID 628838.
  103. ^ Guenther, Elke; Zrenner, Eberhart (April 1993). "The Spectral Sensitivity of Dark- and Light-adapted Cat Retinal Ganglion Cells". Journal of Neuroscience13 (4): 1543–1550. PMID 8463834. Archived from the original on 13 April 2011.
  104. a b Heffner, Rickye S. (November 2004). "Primate hearing from a mammalian perspective" (PDF)The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology281 (1): 1111–1122. doi:10.1002/ar.a.20117. PMID 15472899. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 September 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
  105. ^ Heffner, Henry E. (May 1998). "Auditory awareness". Applied Animal Behaviour Science57 (3–4): 259–268. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(98)00101-4.
  106. a b Sunquist, Melvin E.; Sunquist, Fiona (2002). Wild Cats of the World. University of Chicago Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-226-77999-7.
  107. ^ Blumberg, M. S. (1992). "Rodent ultrasonic short calls: locomotion, biomechanics, and communication". Journal of Comparative Psychology106 (4): 360–365. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.106.4.360. PMID 1451418.
  108. ^ Heffner, Rickye S. (1985). "Hearing range of the domestic cat"(PDF)Hearing Research19 (1): 85–88. doi:10.1016/0378-5955(85)90100-5. PMID 4066516. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 August 2010. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
  109. ^ Moulton, David G. (1 August 1967). "Olfaction in mammals". American Zoology7 (3): 421–429. doi:10.1093/icb/7.3.421.
  110. ^ Miyazaki, M.; Yamashita, T; Suzuki, Y.; Saito, Y.; Soeta, S.; Taira, H.; Suzuki, A. (2006). "A major urinary protein of the domestic cat regulates the production of felinine, a putative pheromone precursor". Chemical Biology13 (10): 1071–1079. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2006.08.013. PMID 17052611.
  111. a b c Sommerville, B. A. (1998). "Olfactory Awareness". Applied Animal Behaviour Science57 (3–4): 269–286. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(98)00102-6.
  112. ^ Grognet, Jeff (June 1990). "Catnip: Its uses and effects, past and present". The Canadian Veterinary Journal31 (6): 455–456. PMC 1480656. PMID 17423611.
  113. ^ Turner, Ramona (29 May 2007). "How does catnip work its magic on cats?". Scientific American. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013.
  114. ^ Tucker, Arthur; Tucker, Sharon (1988). "Catnip and the catnip response". Economic Botany42 (2): 214–231. doi:10.1007/BF02858923.
  115. a b Schelling, Christianne. "Do Cats Have a Sense of Taste?". CatHealth.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2016.
  116. ^ "Why Cats Can't Taste Sweets". Petside.com. 13 March 2012. Archived from the original on 25 January 2013. Retrieved 11 January2013.
  117. ^ Bradshaw, John W. S. (1 July 2006). "The Evolutionary Basis for the Feeding Behavior of Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) and Cats (Felis catus)". Journal of Nutrition136 (7): 1927S–1931. doi:10.1093/jn/136.7.1927S. PMID 16772461.
  118. ^ Nash, Holly. "Why Do Cats Like High Places?". PetEducation.com. Drs. Foster & Smith Inc. Archived from the original on 2 January 2008.
  119. ^ "Falling Cats". Archived from the original on 26 October 2005. Retrieved 24 October 2005.
  120. ^ Nguyen, Huy D. (1998). "How Does a Cat Always Land on Its Feet?". Dynamics II (ME 3760) Course Materials. School of Medical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 10 April 2001. Retrieved 15 May 2007. This tertiary sourcereuses information from other sources but does not name them.
  121. ^ Kent, Marc; Platt, Simon R. (September 2010). "The neurology of balance: Function and dysfunction of the vestibular system in dogs and cats". The Veterinary Journal185 (3): 247–249. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.10.029. PMID 19944632.
  122. a b c Kraft, W. (February 1998). "Geriatrics in canine and feline internal medicine". European Journal of Medical Research3 (1–2): 31–41. PMID 9512965.
  123. ^ Nassar R, Mosier JE, Williams LW (February 1984). "Study of the feline and canine populations in the greater Las Vegas area". American Journal of Veterinary Research45 (2): 282–287. PMID 6711951.
  124. ^ "What Is the Average Lifespan of a Cat?". The Spruce Pets. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  125. ^ Example: "Me-wow! Texas Woman Says Cat is 30 Years Old – Although She Can't Hear or See Very Well, Caterack the Cat Is Still Purring". MSNBC.MSN.com. New York: Microsoft. 30 September 2009. Archived from the original on 2 October 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2009.
  126. ^ Guinness World Records (reprint ed.). Bantam Books. 2010. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-553-59337-2. The oldest cat ever was Creme Puff, who was born on August 3, 1967 and lived until August 6, 2005 – 38 years and 3 days in total.
  127. ^ "Cat Care: Spay–Neuter". ASPCA.org. New York: American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 2011. Archived from the original on 19 May 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2011. This tertiary sourcereuses information from other sources but does not name them.
  128. ^ Levy, Julie K.; Gale, David W.‌; Gale, Leslie A. (January 2003). "Evaluation of the effect of a long-term trap-neuter-return and adoption program on a free-roaming cat population". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association222 (1): 42–46. doi:10.2460/javma.2003.222.42. PMID 12523478.
  129. ^ Levy, Julie K.; Crawford, P. Cynda (November 2004). "Humane strategies for controlling feral cat populations". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association225 (9): 1354–1360. doi:10.2460/javma.2004.225.1354. PMID 15552308.
  130. ^ A number of the four remaining colony cats at the Parliament Hill Cat Sanctuary in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada were 15 and 16 years old in 2013. "A beloved Parliament Hill attraction uses up its nine lives"Archived 20 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Karan Smith, The Globe and Mail, 1 February 2013.
  131. ^ J. Remfry, Feral Cats in the United Kingdom (JAVMA Vol. 208, No. 4, 15 February 1996, pp. 520–523), at p. 522, available online at pp. 24–27 of "AVMA Animal Welfare Forum: The welfare of cats" Archived19 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine., 3 November 1995.
  132. ^ Zorro, the last cat of a colony at the Merrimack River in Newburyport, Massachusetts, died in 2009 at age 16. "Trap-Neuter-Return Effectively Stabilizes and Reduces Feral Cat Populations: Trap-Neuter-Return Humanely Stabilized and Reduced in Size the Merrimack River Colony" Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Alley Cat Allies, accessed 18 August 2014; an earlier article in the LA Times was written when Zorro was the last remaining living cat: "Advocates report success with trap, neuter, return approach to stray cats"Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Los Angeles Times, 29 September 2009.
  133. ^ The last cat in a managed colony in Washington, D.C. died at age 17. "Trap-Neuter-Return Effectively Stabilizes and Reduces Feral Cat Populations: Washington, D.C. Cat Colony Stabilized and Eventually Reduced to Zero" Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Alley Cat Allies, accessed 18 August 2014.
  134. ^ Huston, Lorie (17 December 2012). "Veterinary Care for Your New Cat". PetMD. Archived from the original on 8 May 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
  135. ^ Nie, W.; Wang, J.; O'Brien, P. C. (2002). "The Genome Phylogeny of Domestic Cat, Red Panda and Five Mustelid Species Revealed by Comparative Chromosome Painting and G-banding". Chromosome Research10 (3): 209–222. doi:10.1023/A:1015292005631. PMID 12067210.
  136. ^ Pontius, J. U.; Mullikin, J. C.; Smith, D. R.; Agencourt Sequencing Team; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program; et al. (2007). "Initial Sequence and Comparative Analysis of the Cat Genome". Genome Research17 (11): 1675–1689. doi:10.1101/gr.6380007. PMC 2045150. PMID 17975172.
  137. ^ O'Brien, Stephen J.; Johnson, W.; Driscoll, C.; Pontius, J.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Menotti-Raymond, M. (2008). "State of Cat Genomics". Trends in Genetics24 (6): 268–279. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2008.03.004. PMID 18471926.
  138. ^ Sewell, A. C.; Haskins, M. E.; Giger, U. (2007). "Inherited Metabolic Disease in Companion Animals: Searching for Nature's Mistakes". Veterinary Journal174 (2): 252–259. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.08.017. PMC 3132193. PMID 17085062.
  139. ^ O'Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, M.; Murphy, W. J.; Yuhki, N. (2002). "The Feline Genome Project". Annual Review of Genetics36: 657–686. doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.36.060602.145553. PMID 12359739.
  140. ^ Germain, E.; Benhamou, S.; Poulle, M.-L. (2008). "Spatio-temporal Sharing between the European Wildcat, the Domestic Cat and their Hybrids". Journal of Zoology276 (2): 195–203. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2008.00479.x.
  141. a b Barratt, David G. (1 June 1997). "Home Range Size, Habitat Utilisation and Movement Patterns of Suburban and Farm Cats Felis catus". Ecography20 (3): 271–280. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0587.1997.tb00371.x. JSTOR 3682838.
  142. ^ Randall, Walter; Johnson, R. F.; Randall, S.; Cunningham, J. T. (1985). "Circadian rhythms in food intake and activity in domestic cats". Behavioral Neuroscience99 (6): 1162–1175. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.99.6.1162. PMID 3843546.
  143. ^ Jouvet, Michel (1979). "What Does a Cat Dream About?". Trends in Neurosciences2: 280–282. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(79)90110-3.
  144. ^ Pontier, Dominique; Natoli, Eugenia (1996). "Male Reproductive Success in the Domestic Cat (Felis catus L.): A Case History". Behavioural Processes37 (1): 85–88. doi:10.1016/0376-6357(95)00070-4.
  145. a b Crowell-Davis, S. L.; Curtis, T. M.; Knowles, R. J. (2004). "Social Organization in the Cat: A Modern Understanding" (PDF)Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery6 (1): 19–28. doi:10.1016/j.jfms.2003.09.013. PMID 15123163. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
  146. a b c d e Bradshaw, J. W.; Goodwin, D.; Legrand-Defrétin, V; Nott, H. M. (1996). "Food selection by the domestic cat, an obligate carnivore". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology114 (3): 205–209. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(95)02133-7. PMID 8759144.
  147. ^ Levine, E.; Perry, P.; Scarlett, J.; Houpt, K. (2005). "Intercat Aggression in Households Following the Introduction of a New Cat"(PDF)Applied Animal Behaviour Science90 (3–4): 325–336. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2004.07.006. Archived from the original(PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2009.
  148. ^ "Dogs and Cats – Getting Along". PetUniversity.com. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
  149. ^ Mills, D. S.; Marchant-Forde, Jeremy (2010). Encyclopedia of Applied Animal Behaviour and Welfare. p. 518. ISBN 978-0-85199-724-7. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017.
  150. ^ "The Cat Body: Adolescence and Sexual Maturity". AnimalPlanet.com (Animal.Discovery.com). Discovery Communications. 2007. "Cat Guide" section. Archived from the original on 30 June 2008.
  151. ^ McComb, K.; Taylor, A. M.; Wilson, C.; Charlton, B. D. (2009). "The Cry Embedded within the Purr". Current Biology19 (13): R507–508. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.05.033. PMID 19602409.
  152. ^ Soennichsen, Susan; Chamove, Arnold S. (2015). "Responses of cats to petting by humans". Anthrozoos15 (3): 258–265. doi:10.2752/089279302786992577.
  153. ^ Jensen, Per (2009). The Ethology of Domestic Animals. "Modular Text" series. Wallingford, England: Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. ISBN 978-1-84593-536-8.
  154. a b "Cat Behavior: Body Language". AnimalPlanet.com. 2007. Archived from the original on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
  155. a b Cafazzo, S.; Natoli, E. (2009). "The Social Function of Tail Up in the Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus)". Behav. Processes80 (1): 60–66. doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2008.09.008. PMID 18930121.
  156. ^ von Muggenthaler, Elizabeth; Wright, Bill. "Solving the Cat's Purr Mystery Using Accelerometers". BKSV.com. Brüel & Kjær. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2010.
  157. ^ "The Cat's Remarkable Purr". ISnare.com. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2008.
  158. ^ "Why and How Do Cats Purr?". Everyday Mysteries: Fun Science Facts from the Library of Congress. Washington DC: Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 3 April 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
  159. ^ "Panthera". Archived from the original on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  160. a b Hadzima, Eva (2016). "Everything You Need to Know About Hairballs". Archived from the original on 6 October 2016.
  161. ^ Boshel, J.; Wilborn, W. H; Singh, B. B.; Peter, S.; Stur, M. (1982). "Filiform Papillae of Cat Tongue". Acta Anatomica114 (2): 97–105. doi:10.1159/000145583. PMID 7180385.
  162. a b Lindell, Ellen M. (December 1997). "Intercat Aggression: A Retrospective Study Examining Types of Aggression, Sexes of Fighting Pairs, and Effectiveness of Treatment". Applied Animal Behaviour Science55 (1–2): 153–162. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(97)00032-4.
  163. ^ Yamane, Akihiro; Doi, Teruo; Ono, Yuiti (1996). "Mating Behaviors, Courtship Rank and Mating Success of Male Feral Cat (Felis catus)". Journal of Ethology14 (1): 35–44. doi:10.1007/BF02350090.
  164. ^ Kustritz, Margaret V. Root (2007). "Determining the Optimal age for Gonadectomy of Dogs and Cats". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association231 (11): 1665–1675. doi:10.2460/javma.231.11.1665. PMID 18052800.
  165. ^ "Aggression Between Family Cats". Humane Society of the United States. 2002. Archived from the original on 14 December 2004.
  166. ^ Pedersen, N. C.; Yamamoto, J. K.; Ishida, T.; Hansen, H. (1989). "Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection". Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology21 (1): 111–129. doi:10.1016/0165-2427(89)90134-7. PMID 2549690.
  167. ^ Understanding and Training Your Cat or Kitten. Sunstone Press. 1994. pp. 146–147. ISBN 978-1-611-39080-3.
  168. a b c d Woods, M.; McDonald, R. A.; Harris, S. (2003). "Predation of wildlife by domestic cats Felis catus in Great Britain". Mammal Review23 (2): 174–188. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2907.2003.00017.x.
  169. ^ Slesnick, Irwin L. (2004). Clones, Cats, and Chemicals: Thinking Scientifically About Controversial Issues. p. 9.
  170. ^ Hill, Dennis S. (2008). Pests of Crops in Warmer Climates and Their Control. p. 120.
  171. a b Loss, Scott R.; Will, Tom; Marra, Peter P. (29 January 2013). "The impact of free-ranging domestic cats on wildlife of the United States". Nature Communications4. Article number 1396. Bibcode:2013NatCo...4E1396L. doi:10.1038/ncomms2380. PMID 23360987. We estimate that free-ranging domestic cats kill 1.4–3.7 billion birds and 6.9–20.7 billion mammals annually.
  172. a b Angier, Natalie (29 January 2013). "That Cuddly Kitty Is Deadlier Than You Think". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 January 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  173. ^ Tucker, Abigail. "How Cats Evolved to Win the Internet". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  174. a b Turner, Dennis C.; Bateson, Patrick, eds. (2000). The Domestic Cat: The Biology of its Behaviour (2nd ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-63648-3.
  175. ^ "Why do cats play with their food?". Arizona Daily Sun. Archivedfrom the original on 19 March 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  176. ^ Leyhausen, Paul (1978). Cat Behavior: The Predatory and Social Behavior of Domestic and Wild Cats. New York: Garland STPM Press. ISBN 978-0-8240-7017-5.
  177. ^ Desmond, Morris (1986). Catwatching: Why Cats Purr and Everything Else You Ever Wanted to Know. Crown Publishing.[clarification needed]
  178. ^ "Why Do Cats Bring Home Dead Animals". LiveScience.com. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
  179. ^ Kienzle, E. (1994). "Blood Sugar Levels and Renal Sugar Excretion after the Intake of High Carbohydrate Diets in Cats" (PDF)Journal of Nutrition124 (12 Supplement): 2563S–2567S. doi:10.1093/jn/124.suppl_12.2563S. PMID 7996238. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 September 2013.
  180. ^ Bradshaw, John W. S. (April 1997). "Factors affecting pica in the domestic cat". Applied Animal Behaviour Science52 (3–4): 373–379. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(96)01136-7.
  181. ^ "Pica: The Un-finicky Feline – Chewing or Eating Cords, Fabric, Houseplants, Etc". School of Veterinary Medicine at University of California, Davis. Archived from the original on 7 September 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2009. This tertiary source reuses information from other sources but does not name them.
  182. ^ "Scientists catch a feral cat killing a large mammal on camera 'for the first time'". ABC News. 2015-03-29. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
  183. ^ Reubel, Gerhard (November 1992). "Acute and Chronic Faucitis of Domestic Cats: A Feline Calicivirus–Induced Disease". Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice22 (6): 1347–1360. doi:10.1016/s0195-5616(92)50131-0. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  184. ^ Wade, Nicholas (11 November 2010). "For Cats, a Big Gulp With a Touch of the Tongue". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 November 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  185. ^ Becker, Karen (22 May 2015). "The Cat That Can Run Up to 30 mph: Fastest Domestic Cat Breed in the World". Mercola Healthy Pets. Joseph Mercola. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  186. ^ Poirier, F. E.; Hussey, L. K. (1 July 1982). "Nonhuman Primate Learning: The Importance of Learning from an Evolutionary Perspective". Anthropology and Education Quarterly13 (2): 133–148. doi:10.1525/aeq.1982.13.2.05x1830j. JSTOR 3216627.
  187. ^ Byers, John A.; Bekoff, Marc (1998). Animal Play: Evolutionary, Comparative, and Ecological Perspectives. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-521-58656-6.
  188. ^ Hall, Sarah L. (2002). "Object Play in Adult Domestic Cats: The Roles of Habituation and Disinhibition". Applied Animal Behaviour Science79(3): 263–271. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(02)00153-3.
  189. ^ Hall, Sarah L. (June 1998). "The Influence of Hunger on Object Play by Adult Domestic Cats". Applied Animal Behaviour Science58 (1–2): 143–150. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(97)00136-6.
  190. ^ MacPhail, Catriona (November 2002). "Gastrointestinal obstruction". Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice17 (4): 178–183. doi:10.1053/svms.2002.36606. PMC 2480448. PMID 12587284.
  191. ^ "Fat Indoor Cats Need Exercise". Pocono Record. 10 December 2006. Archived from the original on 14 July 2009. This tertiary sourcereuses information from other sources but does not name them.
  192. a b c d "Prolific Cats: The Estrous Cycle" (PDF). Veterinary Learning Systems. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 December 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
  193. ^ Aronson, L. R.; Cooper, M. L. (1967). "Penile Spines of the Domestic Cat: Their Endocrine-behavior Relations" (PDF)Anat. Rec157 (1): 71–78. doi:10.1002/ar.1091570111. PMID 6030760. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2015.
  194. ^ Wildt, D. E.; Seager, S. W.; Chakraborty, P. K. (1980). "Effect of Copulatory Stimuli on Incidence of Ovulation and on Serum Luteinizing Hormone in the Cat". Endocrinology107 (4): 1212–1217. doi:10.1210/endo-107-4-1212. PMID 7190893.
  195. ^ Swanson, William F.; Roth, Terri L.; Wilt, David E. (1994). "In Vivo Embryogenesis, Embryo Migration and Embryonic Mortality in the Domestic Cat" (PDF)Biology of Reproduction51 (3): 452–464. doi:10.1095/biolreprod51.3.452. Archived from the original (PDF)on 3 September 2015.
  196. ^ "Cat Development – Embryology". UNSW Embryology Wiki. University of New South Wales. 6 June 2013. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  197. ^ Tsutsui, T.; Stabenfeldt, G. H. (1993). "Biology of Ovarian Cycles, Pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the Domestic Cat". J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl47: 29–35. PMID 8229938.
  198. ^ Behrend, Katrin; Wegler, Monika (1991). The Complete Book of Cat Care: How to Raise a Happy and Healthy Cat. translated from German by Elizabeth D. Crawford. Hauppauge, New York: Barron's Educational Series. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-8120-4613-7.
  199. ^ Olson, P. N.; Kustritz, M. V.; Johnston, S. D. (2001). "Early-age Neutering of Dogs and Cats in the United States (A Review)". J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl57: 223–232. PMID 11787153.
  200. ^ Root Kustritz, Margaret V. (2007). "Determining the optimal age for gonadectomy of dogs and cats" (PDF)Journal of American Veterinary Medicine231 (11): 1665–1675. doi:10.2460/javma.231.11.1665. PMID 18052800. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2010.
  201. ^ Chu, Karyen; Anderson, W. M.; Rieser, M. Y. (2009). "Population characteristics and neuter status of cats living in households in the United States". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association234 (8): 1023–1030. doi:10.2460/javma.234.8.1023. PMID 19366332.
  202. ^ Randerson, James (6 January 2006). "From Lion to Moggie: How Cats Climbed their Family Tree". The Guardian. London.
  203. ^ Say, Ludovic (2002). "Spatio-temporal variation in cat population density in a sub-Antarctic environment". Polar Biology25 (2): 90–95. doi:10.1007/s003000100316.
  204. ^ Frenot, Y.; Chown, Steven L.; Whinam, Jennie; Selkirk, Patricia M.; Convey, Peter; Skotnicki, Mary; Bergstrom, Dana M. (2005). "Biological Invasions in the Antarctic: Extent, Impacts and Implications". Biological Reviews80 (1): 45–72. doi:10.1017/S1464793104006542. PMID 15727038.
  205. ^ Invasive Species Specialist Group (2006). "Ecology of Felis catus". Global Invasive Species Database. Species Survival Commission, International Union for Conservation of Nature. Archived from the original on 27 October 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2009.
  206. a b Nogales, M.; Martin, A.; Tershy, B. R.; Donlan, C. J.; Veitch, D.; Uerta, N.; Wood, B.; Alonso, J. (2004). "A Review of Feral Cat Eradication on Islands". Conservation Biology18 (2): 310–319. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00442.x. hdl:10261/22249.
  207. ^ Invasive Species Specialist Group (2000). "100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species: A Selection from the Global Invasive Species Database" (PDF). IUCN Species Survival Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2009.
  208. a b "What is the difference between a stray cat and a feral cat?". Humane Society of the United States. Archived from the original on 1 May 2008.
  209. ^ "Torre Argentina cat shelter". Archived from the original on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
  210. ^ Rowan, Andrew N.; Salem, Deborah J. (November 2003). "4"(PDF)The State of the Animals II: 2003 (PDF)|format= requires |url=(help). Humane Society of the United States. ISBN 978-0-9658942-7-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2006.
  211. ^ "2013 AAFP Feline Vaccination Advisory Panel Report" (PDF)Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery: 9. 2013. Archived (PDF)from the original on 11 August 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  212. ^ Robertson, I. D. (1998). "Survey of Predation by Domestic Cats". Australian Veterinary Journal76 (8): 551–554. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1998.tb10214.x. PMID 9741724.
  213. ^ Beckerman, A. P.; Boots, M.; Gaston, K. J. (2007). "Urban Bird Declines and the Fear of Cats" (PDF)Animal Conservation10 (3): 320–325. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2007.00115.x. Archived (PDF)from the original on 3 March 2016.
  214. ^ Courchamp, F.; Chapuis, J. L.; Pascal, M. (2003). "Mammal Invaders on Islands: Impact, Control and Control Impact" (PDF)Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society78 (3): 347–383. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.507.8446. doi:10.1017/S1464793102006061. PMID 14558589. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2017.
  215. ^ Rayner, M. J.; Hauber, M. E.; Imber, M. J.; Stamp, R. K.; Clout, M. N. (2007). "Spatial Heterogeneity of Mesopredator Release within an Oceanic Island System". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America104 (52): 20862–20865. Bibcode:2007PNAS..10420862R. doi:10.1073/pnas.0707414105. PMC 2409232. PMID 18083843.
  216. ^ Dickman, Chris R. (1996). "Overview of the Impacts of Feral Cats on Australian Native Fauna" (PDF). Australian Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Archived from the original(PDF) on 13 September 2007. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
  217. ^ James, H.; Acharya, A. B.; Taylor, J. A.; Freak, M. J. (2002). "A case of bitten Bettongs". Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology20 (1): 10–12. PMID 12085522.
  218. ^ Glen, A. S.; Dickman, C. R. (2005). "Complex interactions among mammalian carnivores in Australia, and their implications for wildlife management" (PDF)Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society80 (3): 387–401. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.452.7854. doi:10.1017/S1464793105006718. PMID 16094805. Archived(PDF) from the original on 22 September 2017.
  219. a b Liberg, O. (1982). "Food Habits and Prey Impact by Feral and House-based Domestic Cats in a Rural Area in Southern Sweden". Journal of Mammalogy65 (3): 424–432. doi:10.2307/1381089. JSTOR 1381089.
  220. a b May, R. (1988). "Control of Feline Delinquency". Nature332(6163): 392–393. Bibcode:1988Natur.332..392M. doi:10.1038/332392a0.
  221. ^ Lambert, Mark (September 2003). Control of Norway Rats in the Agricultural Environment: Alternatives to Rodenticide Use (PDF)(PhD). University of Leicester. pp. 85–103.
  222. ^ Davis, David E. (1957). "The Use of Food as a Buffer in a Predator–Prey System". Journal of Mammalogy38 (4): 466–472. doi:10.2307/1376399. ISSN 0022-2372. JSTOR 1376399.
  223. ^ Wodzicki, K. (1973). "Prospects for biological control of rodent populations". Bulletin of the World Health Organization48 (4): 461–467. PMC 2481104. PMID 4587482.
  224. ^ "You thought watching cat videos was harmless fun? Think Again". The Register. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  225. ^ Chucher, P. B.; Lawton, J. H. (1987). "Predation by Domestic Cats in an English village". Journal of Zoology, London212 (3): 439–455. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1987.tb02915.x.
  226. a b Mead, C. J. (1982). "Ringed birds killed by cats". Mammal Review12 (4): 183–186. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.1982.tb00014.x.
  227. ^ Crooks, Kevin R.; Soul, Michael E. (1999). "Mesopredator Release and Avifaunal Extinctions in a Fragmented System" (PDF)Nature400 (6744): 563–566. Bibcode:1999Natur.400..563C. doi:10.1038/23028. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 July 2011.
  228. ^ Fitzgerald, M. B.; Turner, Dennis C. "Hunting Behaviour of Domestic Cats and Their Impact on Prey Populations". In Turner & Bateson. The Domestic Cat: The Biology of its Behaviour. pp. 151–175.
  229. ^ Courchamp, F.; Langlais, M.; Sugihara, G. (1999). "Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect". Journal of Animal Ecology68 (2): 282–292. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2656.1999.00285.x.
  230. ^ Stattersfield, A. J.; Crosby, M. J.; Long, A. J.; Wege, D. C. (1998). Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. "BirdLife Conservation Series" No. 7. Cambridge, England: Burlington Press. ISBN 978-0-946888-33-7.
  231. ^ Williams, A. J. (1984). "Status and Conservation of Seabirds at some Islands in the African Sector of the Southern Ocean". In Croxall, J. P.; Evans, P. G. H.; Schreiber, R. W. Status and Conservation of the World's Seabirds. Cambridge, England: International Council for Bird Preservation. pp. 627–635.
  232. ^ Falla, R. A. (1955). New Zealand Bird Life Past and Present. Cawthron Institute.[page needed]
  233. ^ Galbreath, R.; Brown, D. (2004). "The Tale of the Lighthouse-keeper's Cat: Discovery and Extinction of the Stephens Island Wren (Traversia lyalli)" (PDF)Notornis51: 193–200. Archived from the original(PDF) on 17 October 2008. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
  234. a b Dowding, J. E.; Murphy, E. C. (2001). "The Impact of Predation be Introduced Mammals on Endemic Shorebirds in New Zealand: A Conservation Perspective". Biological Conservation99: 47–64. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00187-7.
  235. ^ Whiting, M. F.; Bradler,, S.; Maxwell,, T. (2003). "Loss and Recovery of Wings in Stick Insects". Nature421 (6920): 264–267. Bibcode:2003Natur.421..264W. doi:10.1038/nature01313. PMID 12529642.
  236. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1992). Groombridge, Brian, ed. Global Biodiversity: Status of the Earth's Living Resources. Chapman & Hall. ISBN 978-0-412-47240-4.
  237. ^ Steadman, D. W.; Martin, P. S. (2003). "The Late Quaternary Extinction and Future Resurrection of Birds on Pacific Islands". Earth-Science Reviews61 (1): 133–147. Bibcode:2003ESRv...61..133S. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00116-2.
  238. ^ Ellin, Abby (5 October 2008). "More Men Are Unabashedly Embracing Their Love of Cats". New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  239. ^ Jones, Jeffrey M. (30 November 2007). "Companionship and Love of Animals Drive Pet Ownership". Gallup Inc. Archived from the original on 25 July 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  240. ^ "What Is That They're Wearing?" (PDF). Humane Society of the United States. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2006. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
  241. ^ Stallwood, Kim W., ed. (2002). A Primer on Animal Rights: Leading Experts Write about Animal Cruelty and Exploitation. Lantern Books.
  242. ^ "Japan: Finale for the world's most elegant use of a dead cat". The Independent. 15 November 1997. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017.
  243. ^ "EU proposes cat and dog fur ban". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 20 November 2006. Archived from the original on 2 January 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
  244. ^ Ikuma, Carly (27 June 2007). "EU Announces Strict Ban on Dog and Cat Fur Imports and Exports". HSUS.org. Humane Society International. Archived from the original on 17 February 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
  245. ^ Witchcraft and Magic in Europe, Volume 3: The Middle Ages. Karen Jolly, A&C Black, 2002
  246. ^ Paterson, Tony (25 April 2008). "Switzerland Finds a Way to Skin a Cat for the Fur Trade and High Fashion". The Independent. London, England. Archived from the original on 7 July 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
  247. ^ "Humane society launches national cat census". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  248. ^ "Cats Be". Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  249. ^ "The Supreme Cat Census". Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  250. ^ "About Pets". IFAHEurope.org. Animal Health Europe. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  251. ^ Legay, J. M. (1986). "Sur une tentative d'estimation du nombre total de chats domestiques dans le monde" [Tentative estimation of the total number of domestic cats in the world]. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série III (in French). 303 (17): 709–712. PMID 3101986. INIST:7950138.
  252. ^ "Cats: Most interesting facts about common domestic pets". Pravda. 2006-01-09. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  253. ^ "Study Traces Cat's Ancestry to Middle East". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  254. ^ Gehrt, Stanley D.; Riley, Seth P. D.; Cypher, Brian L. (12 March 2010). Urban Carnivores: Ecology, Conflict, and Conservation. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801893896. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  255. ^ Rochlitz, Irene (17 April 2007). The Welfare of Cats. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781402032271. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  256. ^ "All About Cat Shows". HowStuffWorks. 2 April 2008. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  257. ^ "All About Cat Shows". HowStuffWorks. 2 April 2008. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  258. ^ "All About Cat Shows". HowStuffWorks. 2 April 2008. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
  259. ^ "cat café". Cambridge English Dictionary. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  260. ^ Bartleby: Ailurophobes and Other Cat-Haters Archived 23 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  261. a b "First Aid: Animal Bites". Nemours Foundation. 2017. Archivedfrom the original on 18 May 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  262. ^ "Animal Bites". HandCare.org. American Society for Surgery of the Hand. 2017. Archived from the original on 28 July 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  263. a b Chomel, Bruno (2014). "Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats". Animals4 (3): 434–445. doi:10.3390/ani4030434. ISSN 2076-2615. PMC 4494318. PMID 26480316.
  264. a b "Cats". Ohio Department of Health. 21 January 2015. Archivedfrom the original on 27 November 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  265. ^ Stull, J. W.; Brophy, J.; Weese, J. S. (2015). "Reducing the risk of pet-associated zoonotic infections". Canadian Medical Association Journal187 (10): 736–743. doi:10.1503/cmaj.141020. ISSN 0820-3946. PMC 4500695. PMID 25897046.
  266. a b c d e Clutton-Brock, Juliet (1999) [1987]. A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals (2nd ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-521-63495-3.
  267. ^ Muir, Hazel (8 April 2004). "Ancient Remains Could Be Oldest Pet Cat". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 23 November 2007.
  268. ^ Walton, Marsha (9 April 2004). "Ancient Burial Looks Like Human and Pet Cat". CNN.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2007. Retrieved 23 November 2007.
  269. ^ "Gatos fueron domesticados en China hace 5.300 años". La Nación(in Spanish). Archived from the original on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  270. a b Mason, I. L. (1984). Evolution of Domesticated Animals. Prentice Hall Press. ISBN 978-0-582-46046-1.
  271. ^ Mark, Joshua J. (17 February 2012). "Cats in the Ancient World". Ancient.eu. Ancient History Encyclopedia Ltd. Archived from the original on 2 January 2018.
  272. a b c d e Engels, Donald W. (2001) [1999]. Classical Cats: The Rise and Fall of the Sacred Cat. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-26162-3.
  273. a b c d e f g h i Rogers, Katherine M. (2006). Cat. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 18–20. ISBN 978-1-86189-292-8.
  274. a b c d Beadle, Muriel (1977). Cat. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 76. ISBN 978-0671224516.
  275. ^ Pate, Alan (2008). "Maneki Neko: Feline Fact & Fiction". Daruma Magazine. Amagasaki, Japan: Takeguchi Momoko. Archived from the original on 30 December 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
  276. ^ Faulkes, Anthony (1995). Edda. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-460-87616-2.
  277. a b c Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews, Vol. I: The Sixth Day (PDF). Translated by Szold, Henrietta. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
  278. ^ Geyer, Georgie Anne (2004). When Cats Reigned Like Kings: On the Trail of the Sacred Cats. Kansas City, Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7407-4697-0.
  279. ^ Reeves, Minou (2000). Muhammad in Europe. New York University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-8147-7533-2.
  280. ^ Al-Thahabi, Shamsuddin. "Biography of al-Rifai". سير أعلام النبلاء (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 25 October 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  281. ^ "Abu Hurairah and Cats". Pictures-of-Cats.org. 13 January 2015.
  282. ^ "Are Black Cats Really Bad Luck? [Hoax]". SocialNewsDaily.com. 2015-10-29. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
  283. ^ Davies, Norman (1996). Europe: A History. Oxford University Press. p. 543. ISBN 978-0-198-20171-7.
  284. ^ Frazer, Sir James George. The Golden Bough, (1922). Online version. Archived 8 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  285. ^ Sugobono, Nora (7 March 2010). "Las vidas del gato". El Comercio(in Spanish). Lima, Peru. Archived from the original on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2010.
  286. ^ "Qual é a origem da lenda de que os gatos teriam sete vidas?". Mundo Estranho (in Portuguese). São Paulo, Brazil: Abril Media. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
  287. ^ Dowling, Tim (19 March 2010). "Tall tails: Pet myths busted". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
  288. ^ "The ASPCA Warns About High-Rise Falls by Cats: High-Rise Apartments, Windows, Terraces and Fire Escapes Pose Risk to Urban Cats". New York: American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 30 June 2005. Archived from the original on 22 May 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2018 – via About.com. (Press release.)

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Britain that would later take their name, England, both names ultimately deriving from the Anglia peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic language), as well as by Latin and French.[6]

English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English. Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England and was a period in which the language was influenced by French.[7] Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London, the printing of the King James Bibleand the start of the Great Vowel Shift.[8]

Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire, Modern English spread around the world from the 17th to mid-20th centuries. Through all types of printed and electronic media, and spurred by the emergence of the United States as a global superpower, English has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and professional contexts such as science, navigation and law.[9]

English is the third most spoken native language in the world, after Standard Chinese and Spanish.[10] It is the most widely learned second language and is either the official language or one of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states. There are more people who have learned it as a second language than there are native speakers. English is the most commonly spoken language in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland and New Zealand, and it is widely spoken in some areas of the Caribbean, Africa and South Asia.[11] It is a co-official language of the United Nations, the European Union and many other world and regional international organisations. It is the most widely spoken Germanic language, accounting for at least 70% of speakers of this Indo-European branch. English has a vast vocabulary, though counting how many words any language has is impossible.[12][13] English speakers are called "Anglophones".

Modern English grammar is the result of a gradual change from a typical Indo-European dependent marking pattern with a rich inflectional morphology and relatively free word order to a mostly analytic pattern with little inflection, a fairly fixed SVO word order and a complex syntax.[14] Modern English relies more on auxiliary verbs and word order for the expression of complex tenses, aspect and mood, as well as passive constructions, interrogatives and some negation. Despite noticeable variation among the accents and dialects of English used in different countries and regions—in terms of phonetics and phonology, and sometimes also vocabulary, grammar and spelling—English-speakers from around the world are able to communicate with one another with relative ease.

Classification

 
Anglic languages
  English
  Scots
Anglo-Frisian languages
Anglic and
  Frisian
North Sea Germanic languagesAnglo-Frisian and
  Low German/Low Saxon
West Germanic languages
North Sea Germanic and
  Dutch
  German
 
Phylogenetic tree showing the historical relations between the languages of the West Germanic branch of the Germanic languages

English is an Indo-European language and belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic languages.[15] Old Englishoriginated from a Germanic tribal and linguistic continuum along the coast of the North Sea, whose languages are now known as the Anglo-Frisian subgroup within West Germanic. As such, the modern Frisian languages are the closest living relatives of Modern English. Low German/Low Saxon is also closely related, and sometimes English, the Frisian languages, and Low German are grouped together as the Ingvaeonic (North Sea Germanic) languages, though this grouping remains debated.[16] Old English evolved into Middle English, which in turn evolved into Modern English.[17] Particular dialects of Old and Middle English also developed into a number of other Anglic languages, including Scots[18] and the extinct Fingallian and Forth and Bargy (Yola) dialects of Ireland.[19]

Like Icelandic and Faroese, the development of English on the British Isles isolated it from the continental Germanic languages and influences, and has since undergone substantial evolution. English is thus not mutually intelligible with any continental Germanic language, differing in vocabulary, syntax, and phonology, although some, such as Dutch or Frisian, do show strong affinities with English, especially with its earlier stages.[20]

Unlike Icelandic or Faroese, the long history of invasions of the British Isles by other peoples and languages, particularly Old Norse and Norman French, left a profound mark of their own on the language, such that English shares substantial vocabulary and grammar similarities with many languages outside its linguistic clades, while also being unintelligible with any of those languages. Some scholars have even argued that English can be considered a mixed language or a creole—a theory called the Middle English creole hypothesis. Although the high degree of influence from these languages on the vocabulary and grammar of Modern English is widely acknowledged, most specialists in language contact do not consider English to be a true mixed language.[21][22]

English is classified as a Germanic language because it shares innovations with other Germanic languages such as Dutch, German, and Swedish.[23] These shared innovations show that the languages have descended from a single common ancestor called Proto-Germanic. Some shared features of Germanic languages include the use of modal verbs, the division of verbs into strong and weak classes, and the sound changes affecting Proto-Indo-European consonants, known as Grimm's and Verner's laws. English is classified as an Anglo-Frisian language because Frisian and English share other features, such as the palatalisation of consonants that were velar consonants in Proto-Germanic (see Phonological history of Old English § Palatalization).[24]

  • English singsangsung; Dutch zingenzonggezongen; German singensanggesungen (strong verb)
  • English laughlaughed; Dutch and German lachenlachte (weak verb)
  • English foot, Dutch voet, German Fuß, Norwegian and Swedish fot (initial /f/ derived from Proto-Indo-European *p through Grimm's law)
(Compare Latin pes, stem ped-; Modern Greek πόδι pódi; Russian под pod; Sanskrit पद् pád)
  • English cheese, Frisian tsiis (ch and ts from palatalisation); German Käse and Dutch kaas (k without palatalisation)

History

Proto-Germanic to Old English

 
The opening to the Old English epic poem Beowulf, handwritten in half-uncial script:
Hƿæt ƿē Gārde/na ingēar dagum þēod cyninga / þrym ge frunon...
"Listen! We of the Spear-Danes from days of yore have heard of the glory of the folk-kings..."

The earliest form of English is called Old English or Anglo-Saxon (c. 550–1066 CE). Old English developed from a set of North Sea Germanic dialects originally spoken along the coasts of Frisia, Lower Saxony, Jutland, and Southern Sweden by Germanic tribes known as the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes. In the fifth century, the Anglo-Saxons settled Britainas the Roman economy and administration collapsed. By the seventh century, the Germanic language of the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in Britain, replacing the languages of Roman Britain (43–409 CE): Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, and Latin, brought to Britain by the Roman occupation.[25][26][27] England and English (originally Ænglaland and Ænglisc) are named after the Angles.[28]

Old English was divided into four dialects: the Anglian dialects, Mercian and Northumbrian, and the Saxon dialects, Kentish and West Saxon.[29] Through the educational reforms of King Alfred in the ninth century and the influence of the kingdom of Wessex, the West Saxon dialect became the standard written variety.[30] The epic poem Beowulf is written in West Saxon, and the earliest English poem, Cædmon's Hymn, is written in Northumbrian.[31] Modern English developed mainly from Mercian, but the Scots language developed from Northumbrian. A few short inscriptions from the early period of Old English were written using a runic script.[32] By the sixth century, a Latin alphabet was adopted, written with half-uncial letterforms. It included the runic letters wynn ⟨ƿ⟩ and thorn ⟨þ⟩, and the modified Latin letters eth ⟨ð⟩, and ash ⟨æ⟩.[32][33]

Old English is very different from Modern English and difficult for 21st-century English speakers to understand. Its grammar was similar to that of modern German, and its closest relative is Old Frisian. Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs had many more inflectional endings and forms, and word order was much freer than in Modern English. Modern English has case forms in pronouns (hehimhis) and a few verb endings (I havehe has), but Old English had case endings in nouns as well, and verbs had more person and number endings.[34][35][36]

The translation of Matthew 8:20 from 1000 CE shows examples of case endings (nominative plural, accusative plural, genitive singular) and a verb ending (present plural):

Foxas habbað holu and heofonan fuglas nest
Fox-as habb-að hol-u and heofon-an fugl-as nest-∅
fox-nom.pl have-prs.pl hole-acc.pl and heaven-gen.sg bird-nom.pl nest-acc.pl
"Foxes have holes and the birds of heaven nests"[37]

Middle English

Englischmen þeyz hy hadde fram þe bygynnyng þre manner speche, Souþeron, Northeron, and Myddel speche in þe myddel of þe lond, … Noþeles by comyxstion and mellyng, furst wiþ Danes, and afterward wiþ Normans, in menye þe contray longage ys asperyed, and som vseþ strange wlaffyng, chyteryng, harryng, and garryng grisbytting.

Although, from the beginning, Englishmen had three manners of speaking, southern, northern and midlands speech in the middle of the country, … Nevertheless, through intermingling and mixing, first with Danes and then with Normans, amongst many the country language has arisen, and some use strange stammering, chattering, snarling, and grating gnashing.

John of Trevisa, ca. 1385[38]

In the period from the 8th to the 12th century, Old English gradually transformed through language contact into Middle English. Middle English is often arbitrarily defined as beginning with the conquest of England by William the Conqueror in 1066, but it developed further in the period from 1200–1450.

First, the waves of Norse colonisation of northern parts of the British Isles in the 8th and 9th centuries put Old English into intense contact with Old Norse, a North Germanic language. Norse influence was strongest in the Northeastern varieties of Old English spoken in the Danelaw area around York, which was the centre of Norse colonisation; today these features are still particularly present in Scots and Northern English. However the centre of norsified English seems to have been in the Midlands around Lindsey, and after 920 CE when Lindsey was reincorporated into the Anglo-Saxon polity, Norse features spread from there into English varieties that had not been in intense contact with Norse speakers. Some elements of Norse influence that persist in all English varieties today are the pronouns beginning with th-(they, them, their) which replaced the Anglo-Saxon pronouns with h- (hie, him, hera).[39]

With the Norman conquest of England in 1066, the now norsified Old English language was subject to contact with the Old Norman language, a Romance languageclosely related to Modern French. The Norman language in England eventually developed into Anglo-Norman. Because Norman was spoken primarily by the elites and nobles, while the lower classes continued speaking Anglo-Saxon, the influence of Norman consisted of introducing a wide range of loanwords related to politics, legislation and prestigious social domains.[40] Middle English also greatly simplified the inflectional system, probably in order to reconcile Old Norse and Old English, which were inflectionally different but morphologically similar. The distinction between nominative and accusative case was lost except in personal pronouns, the instrumental case was dropped, and the use of the genitive case was limited to describing possession. The inflectional system regularised many irregular inflectional forms,[41] and gradually simplified the system of agreement, making word order less flexible.[42] By the Wycliffe Bible of the 1380s, the passage Matthew 8:20 was written

Foxis han dennes, and briddis of heuene han nestis[43]

Here the plural suffix -n on the verb have is still retained, but none of the case endings on the nouns are present.

By the 12th century Middle English was fully developed, integrating both Norse and Norman features; it continued to be spoken until the transition to early Modern English around 1500. Middle English literature includes Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, and Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur. In the Middle English period, the use of regional dialects in writing proliferated, and dialect traits were even used for effect by authors such as Chaucer.

Early Modern English

 
Graphic representation of the Great Vowel Shift, showing how the pronunciation of the long vowels gradually shifted, with the high vowels i: and u: breaking into diphthongs and the lower vowels each shifting their pronunciation up one level

The next period in the history of English was Early Modern English (1500–1700). Early Modern English was characterised by the Great Vowel Shift (1350–1700), inflectional simplification, and linguistic standardisation.

The Great Vowel Shift affected the stressed long vowels of Middle English. It was a chain shift, meaning that each shift triggered a subsequent shift in the vowel system. Mid and open vowels were raised, and close vowels were broken into diphthongs. For example, the word bite was originally pronounced as the word beet is today, and the second vowel in the word about was pronounced as the word boot is today. The Great Vowel Shift explains many irregularities in spelling since English retains many spellings from Middle English, and it also explains why English vowel letters have very different pronunciations from the same letters in other languages.[44][45]

English began to rise in prestige, relative to Norman French, during the reign of Henry V. Around 1430, the Court of Chancery in Westminster began using English in its official documents, and a new standard form of Middle English, known as Chancery Standard, developed from the dialects of London and the East Midlands. In 1476, William Caxton introduced the printing press to England and began publishing the first printed books in London, expanding the influence of this form of English.[46] Literature from the Early Modern period includes the works of William Shakespeare and the translation of the Bible commissioned by King James I. Even after the vowel shift the language still sounded different from Modern English: for example, the consonant clusters /kn ɡn sw/ in knightgnat, and sword were still pronounced. Many of the grammatical features that a modern reader of Shakespeare might find quaint or archaic represent the distinct characteristics of Early Modern English.[47]

In the 1611 King James Version of the Bible, written in Early Modern English, Matthew 8:20 says:

The Foxes haue holes and the birds of the ayre haue nests[37]

This exemplifies the loss of case and its effects on sentence structure (replacement with Subject-Verb-Object word order, and the use of of instead of the non-possessive genitive), and the introduction of loanwords from French (ayre) and word replacements (bird originally meaning "nestling" had replaced OE fugol).

Spread of Modern English

By the late 18th century, the British Empire had facilitated the spread of English through its colonies and geopolitical dominance. Commerce, science and technology, diplomacy, art, and formal education all contributed to English becoming the first truly global language. English also facilitated worldwide international communication.[48][9] As England continued to form new colonies, these, in turn, became independent and developed their own norms for how to speak and write the language. English was adopted in North America, India, parts of Africa, Australasia, and many other regions. In the post-colonial period, some of the newly created nations that had multiple indigenous languages opted to continue using English as the official language to avoid the political difficulties inherent in promoting any one indigenous language above the others.[49][50][51] In the 20th century the growing economic and cultural influence of the United States and its status as a superpower following the Second World War has, along with worldwide broadcasting in English by the BBC[52] and other broadcasters, significantly accelerated the spread of the language across the planet.[53][54] By the 21st century, English was more widely spoken and written than any language has ever been.[55]

A major feature in the early development of Modern English was the codification of explicit norms for standard usage, and their dissemination through official media such as public education and state-sponsored publications. In 1755 Samuel Johnson published his A Dictionary of the English Language which introduced a standard set of spelling conventions and usage norms. In 1828, Noah Webster published the American Dictionary of the English language in an effort to establish a norm for speaking and writing American English that was independent from the British standard. Within Britain, non-standard or lower class dialect features were increasingly stigmatised, leading to the quick spread of the prestige varieties among the middle classes.[56]

In terms of grammatical evolution, Modern English has now reached a stage where the loss of case is almost complete (case is now only found in pronouns, such as he and himshe and herwho and whom), and where SVO word-order is mostly fixed.[56] Some changes, such as the use of do-support have become universalised. (Earlier English did not use the word "do" as a general auxiliary as Modern English does; at first it was only used in question constructions where it was not obligatory.[57] Now, do-support with the verb have is becoming increasingly standardised.) The use of progressive forms in -ing, appears to be spreading to new constructions, and forms such as had been being built are becoming more common. Regularisation of irregular forms also slowly continues (e.g. dreamed instead of dreamt), and analytical alternatives to inflectional forms are becoming more common (e.g. more polite instead of politer). British English is also undergoing change under the influence of American English, fuelled by the strong presence of American English in the media and the prestige associated with the US as a world power. [58][59][60]

Geographical distribution

 

 
Percentage of English native speakers.
 
 
Percentage of English speakers by country.
  80–100%
  60–80%
  40–60%
  20–40%
  0–20%
  Not available

As of 2016, 400 million people spoke English as their first language, and 1.1 billion spoke it as a secondary language.[61] English is probably the third largest language by number of native speakers, after Mandarin and Spanish.[10] However, when combining native and non-native speakers it may, depending on the estimate used, be the most commonly spoken language in the world.[55][62][63][64] English is spoken by communities on every continent and on oceanic islands in all the major oceans.[65]

The countries in which English is spoken can be grouped into different categories by how English is used in each country. The "inner circle"[66] countries with many native speakers of English share an international standard of written English and jointly influence speech norms of English around the world. English does not belong to just one country, and it does not belong solely to descendants of English settlers. English is an official language of countries populated by few descendants of native speakers of English. It has also become by far the most important language of international communication when people who share no native language meet anywhere in the world.

Three circles of English-speaking countries

Braj Kachru distinguishes countries where English is spoken with a three circles model.[66] In his model, the "inner circle" countries are countries with large communities of native speakers of English, "outer circle" countries have small communities of native speakers of English but widespread use of English as a second language in education or broadcasting or for local official purposes, and "expanding circle" countries are countries where many learners learn English as a foreign language. Kachru bases his model on the history of how English spread in different countries, how users acquire English, and the range of uses English has in each country. The three circles change membership over time.[67]

Braj Kachru's Three Circles of English
 
Braj Kachru's Three Circles of English.

Countries with large communities of native speakers of English (the inner circle) include Britain, the United States, Australia, Canada, Ireland, and New Zealand, where the majority speaks English, and South Africa, where a significant minority speaks English. The countries with the most native English speakers are, in descending order, the United States (at least 231 million),[68] the United Kingdom (60 million),[69][70][71] Canada (19 million),[72] Australia (at least 17 million),[73] South Africa (4.8 million),[74]Ireland (4.2 million), and New Zealand (3.7 million).[75] In these countries, children of native speakers learn English from their parents, and local people who speak other languages or new immigrants learn English to communicate in their neighbourhoods and workplaces.[76] The inner-circle countries provide the base from which English spreads to other countries in the world.[67]

Estimates of the number of English speakers who are second language and foreign-language speakers vary greatly from 470 million to more than 1,000 million depending on how proficiency is defined.[11] Linguist David Crystal estimates that non-native speakers now outnumber native speakers by a ratio of 3 to 1.[62] In Kachru's three-circles model, the "outer circle" countries are countries such as the Philippines,[77] Jamaica,[78] India, Pakistan, Singapore,[79] and Nigeria[80][81] with a much smaller proportion of native speakers of English but much use of English as a second language for education, government, or domestic business, and where English is routinely used for school instruction and official interactions with the government.[82]

Those countries have millions of native speakers of dialect continua ranging from an English-based creole to a more standard version of English. They have many more speakers of English who acquire English in the process of growing up through day by day use and listening to broadcasting, especially if they attend schools where English is the medium of instruction. Varieties of English learned by speakers who are not native speakers born to English-speaking parents may be influenced, especially in their grammar, by the other languages spoken by those learners.[76] Most of those varieties of English include words little used by native speakers of English in the inner-circle countries,[76] and they may have grammatical and phonological differences from inner-circle varieties as well. The standard English of the inner-circle countries is often taken as a norm for use of English in the outer-circle countries.[76]

In the three-circles model, countries such as Poland, China, Brazil, Germany, Japan, Indonesia, Egypt, and other countries where English is taught as a foreign language make up the "expanding circle".[83] The distinctions between English as a first language, as a second language, and as a foreign language are often debatable and may change in particular countries over time.[82] For example, in the Netherlands and some other countries of Europe, knowledge of English as a second language is nearly universal, with over 80 percent of the population able to use it,[84] and thus English is routinely used to communicate with foreigners and often in higher education. In these countries, although English is not used for government business, its widespread use puts them at the boundary between the "outer circle" and "expanding circle". English is unusual among world languages in how many of its users are not native speakers but speakers of English as a second or foreign language.[85]

Many users of English in the expanding circle use it to communicate with other people from the expanding circle, so that interaction with native speakers of English plays no part in their decision to use English.[86] Non-native varieties of English are widely used for international communication, and speakers of one such variety often encounter features of other varieties.[87] Very often today a conversation in English anywhere in the world may include no native speakers of English at all, even while including speakers from several different countries.[88]

 

Pie chart showing the percentage of native English speakers living in "inner circle" English-speaking countries. Native speakers are now substantially outnumbered worldwide by second-language speakers of English (not counted in this chart).

  US (64.3%)
  UK (16.7%)
  Canada (5.3%)
  Australia (4.7%)
  South Africa (1.3%)
  Ireland (1.1%)
  New Zealand (1%)
  Other (5.6%)

Pluricentric English

English is a pluricentric language, which means that no one national authority sets the standard for use of the language.[89][90][91][92] But English is not a divided language,[93] despite a long-standing joke originally attributed to George Bernard Shaw that the United Kingdom and the United States are "two countries separated by a common language".[94] Spoken English, for example English used in broadcasting, generally follows national pronunciation standards that are also established by custom rather than by regulation. International broadcasters are usually identifiable as coming from one country rather than another through their accents,[95] but newsreader scripts are also composed largely in international standard written English. The norms of standard written English are maintained purely by the consensus of educated English-speakers around the world, without any oversight by any government or international organisation.[96]

American listeners generally readily understand most British broadcasting, and British listeners readily understand most American broadcasting. Most English speakers around the world can understand radio programmes, television programmes, and films from many parts of the English-speaking world.[97] Both standard and non-standard varieties of English can include both formal or informal styles, distinguished by word choice and syntax and use both technical and non-technical registers.[98]

The settlement history of the English-speaking inner circle countries outside Britain helped level dialect distinctions and produce koineised forms of English in South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand.[99] The majority of immigrants to the United States without British ancestry rapidly adopted English after arrival. Now the majority of the United States population are monolingual English speakers,[100][68] although English has been given official status by only 30 of the 50 state governments of the US.[101][102]

English as a global language

English has ceased to be an "English language" in the sense of belonging only to people who are ethnically English.[103][104] Use of English is growing country-by-country internally and for international communication. Most people learn English for practical rather than ideological reasons.[105] Many speakers of English in Africa have become part of an "Afro-Saxon" language community that unites Africans from different countries.[106]

As decolonisation proceeded throughout the British Empire in the 1950s and 1960s, former colonies often did not reject English but rather continued to use it as independent countries setting their own language policies.[50][51][107] For example, the view of the English language among many Indians has gone from associating it with colonialism to associating it with economic progress, and English continues to be an official language of India.[108] English is also widely used in media and literature, and the number of English language books published annually in India is the third largest in the world after the US and UK.[109] However English is rarely spoken as a first language, numbering only around a couple hundred-thousand people, and less than 5% of the population speak fluent English in India.[110][111] David Crystal claimed in 2004 that, combining native and non-native speakers, India now has more people who speak or understand English than any other country in the world,[112] but the number of English speakers in India is very uncertain, with most scholars concluding that the United States still has more speakers of English than India.[113]

Modern English, sometimes described as the first global lingua franca,[53][114] is also regarded as the first world language.[115][116] English is the world's most widely used language in newspaper publishing, book publishing, international telecommunications, scientific publishing, international trade, mass entertainment, and diplomacy.[116] English is, by international treaty, the basis for the required controlled natural languages[117]Seaspeak and Airspeak, used as international languages of seafaring[118] and aviation.[119] English used to have parity with French and German in scientific research, but now it dominates that field.[120] It achieved parity with French as a language of diplomacy at the Treaty of Versailles negotiations in 1919.[121] By the time of the foundation of the United Nations at the end of World War II, English had become pre-eminent [122] and is now the main worldwide language of diplomacy and international relations.[123] It is one of six official languages of the United Nations.[124] Many other worldwide international organisations, including the International Olympic Committee, specify English as a working language or official language of the organisation.

Many regional international organisations such as the European Free Trade Association, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN),[54] and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) set English as their organisation's sole working language even though most members are not countries with a majority of native English speakers. While the European Union (EU) allows member states to designate any of the national languages as an official language of the Union, in practice English is the main working language of EU organisations.[125]

Although in most countries English is not an official language, it is currently the language most often taught as a foreign language.[53][54] In the countries of the EU, English is the most widely spoken foreign language in nineteen of the twenty-five member states where it is not an official language (that is, the countries other than the UK, Ireland and Malta). In a 2012 official Eurobarometer poll, 38 percent of the EU respondents outside the countries where English is an official language said they could speak English well enough to have a conversation in that language. The next most commonly mentioned foreign language, French (which is the most widely known foreign language in the UK and Ireland), could be used in conversation by 12 percent of respondents.[126]

A working knowledge of English has become a requirement in a number of occupations and professions such as medicine[127] and computing. English has become so important in scientific publishing that more than 80 percent of all scientific journal articles indexed by Chemical Abstracts in 1998 were written in English, as were 90 percent of all articles in natural science publications by 1996 and 82 percent of articles in humanities publications by 1995.[128]

Specialised subsets of English arise spontaneously in international communities, for example, among international business people, as an auxiliary language. This has led some scholars to develop the study of English as an auxiliary language. Globish uses a relatively small subset of English vocabulary (about 1500 words with highest use in international business English) in combination with the standard English grammar. Other examples include Simple English.

The increased use of the English language globally has had an effect on other languages, leading to some English words being assimilated into the vocabularies of other languages. This influence of English has led to concerns about language death,[129] and to claims of linguistic imperialism,[130] and has provoked resistance to the spread of English; however the number of speakers continues to increase because many people around the world think that English provides them with opportunities for better employment and improved lives.[131]

Although some scholars mention a possibility of future divergence of English dialects into mutually unintelligible languages, most think a more likely outcome is that English will continue to function as a koineisedlanguage in which the standard form unifies speakers from around the world.[132] English is used as the language for wider communication in countries around the world.[133] Thus English has grown in worldwide use much more than any constructed language proposed as an international auxiliary language, including Esperanto.[134][135]

Phonology

The phonetics and phonology of the English language differ from one dialect to another, usually without interfering with mutual communication. Phonological variation affects the inventory of phonemes (i.e. speech sounds that distinguish meaning), and phonetic variation consists in differences in pronunciation of the phonemes. [136] This overview mainly describes the standard pronunciations of the United Kingdom and the United States: Received Pronunciation (RP) and General American (GA). (See § Dialects, accents, and varieties, below.)

The phonetic symbols used below are from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).[137][138][139]

Consonants

Most English dialects share the same 24 consonant phonemes. The consonant inventory shown below is valid for Californian American English,[140] and for RP.[141]

Consonant phonemes
  Labial Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal   m     n       ŋ  
Stop p b   t d   k ɡ  
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ     h  
Approximant       l   ɹ*   j   w  

* Conventionally transcribed /r/.

In the table, when obstruents (stops, affricates, and fricatives) appear in pairs, such as /p b//tʃ dʒ/, and /s z/, the first is fortis (strong) and the second is lenis (weak). Fortis obstruents, such as /p tʃ s/ are pronounced with more muscular tension and breath force than lenis consonants, such as /b dʒ z/, and are always voiceless. Lenis consonants are partly voiced at the beginning and end of utterances, and fully voiced between vowels. Fortis stops such as /p/ have additional articulatory or acoustic features in most dialects: they are aspirated [pʰ] when they occur alone at the beginning of a stressed syllable, often unaspirated in other cases, and often unreleased [p̚] or pre-glottalised [ʔp] at the end of a syllable. In a single-syllable word, a vowel before a fortis stop is shortened: thus nip has a noticeably shorter vowel (phonetically, but not phonemically) than nib [nɪˑb̥](see below).[142]

  • lenis stops: bin [b̥ɪˑn]about [əˈbaʊt]nib [nɪˑb̥]
  • fortis stops: pin [pʰɪn]spin [spɪn]happy [ˈhæpi]nip [nɪp̚] or [nɪʔp]

In RP, the lateral approximant /l/, has two main allophones (pronunciation variants): the clear or plain [l], as in light, and the dark or velarised [ɫ], as in full.[143] GA has dark l in most cases.[144]

  • clear l: RP light [laɪt]
  • dark l: RP and GA full [fʊɫ], GA light [ɫaɪt]

All sonorants (liquids /l, r/ and nasals /m, n, ŋ/) devoice when following a voiceless obstruent, and they are syllabic when following a consonant at the end of a word.[145]

  • voiceless sonorants: clay [kl̥eɪ̯]snow RP [sn̥əʊ̯], GA [sn̥oʊ̯]
  • syllabic sonorants: paddle [ˈpad.l̩]button [ˈbʌt.n̩]

Vowels

The pronunciation of vowels varies a great deal between dialects and is one of the most detectable aspects of a speaker's accent. The table below lists the vowel phonemes in Received Pronunciation (RP) and General American (GA), with examples of words in which they occur from lexical sets compiled by linguists. The vowels are represented with symbols from the International Phonetic Alphabet; those given for RP are standard in British dictionaries and other publications.[146]

Monophthongs
RP GA Word
i need
ɪ bid
e ɛ bed
æ back
ɑː ɑ bra
ɒ box
ɔɑ cloth
ɔː paw
u food
ʊ good
ʌ but
ɜː ɜr bird
ə comma
Closing diphthongs
RP GA Word
bay
əʊ road
cry
cow
ɔɪ boy
Centering diphthongs
RP GA word
ɪə ɪɹ peer
ɛɹ pair
ʊə ʊɹ poor
 

In RP, vowel length is phonemic; long vowels are marked with a triangular colon ⟨ː⟩ in the table above, such as the vowel of need [niːd] as opposed to bid [bɪd]. In GA, vowel length is non-distinctive.

In both RP and GA, vowels are phonetically shortened before fortis consonants in the same syllable, like /t tʃ f/, but not before lenis consonants like /d dʒ v/ or in open syllables: thus, the vowels of rich [rɪtʃ]neat [nit], and safe [seɪ̯f] are noticeably shorter than the vowels of ridge [rɪˑdʒ]need [niˑd], and save [seˑɪ̯v], and the vowel of light [laɪ̯t] is shorter than that of lie [laˑɪ̯]. Because lenis consonants are frequently voiceless at the end of a syllable, vowel length is an important cue as to whether the following consonant is lenis or fortis.[147]

The vowel /ə/ only occurs in unstressed syllables and is closer in quality when followed by a morpheme-internal consonant and opener when morpheme-final or prevocalic.[148][149] Some dialects do not contrast /ɪ/ and /ə/in unstressed positions, so that rabbit and abbot rhyme and Lenin and Lennon are homophonous, a dialect feature called weak vowel merger.[150] GA /ɜr/ and /ər/ are realised as an r-coloured vowel [ɚ], as in further[ˈfɚðɚ] (phonemically /ˈfɜrðər/, which in RP is realised as [ˈfəːðə] (phonemically /ˈfɜːðə/).[151]

Phonotactics

An English syllable includes a syllable nucleus consisting of a vowel sound. Syllable onset and coda (start and end) are optional. A syllable can start with up to three consonant sounds, as in sprint /sprɪnt/, and end with up to four, as in texts /teksts/. This gives an English syllable the following structure, (CCC)V(CCCC) where C represents a consonant and V a vowel; the word strengths /strɛŋkθs/ is thus an example of the most complex syllable possible in English. The consonants that may appear together in onsets or codas are restricted, as is the order in which they may appear. Onsets can only have four types of consonant clusters: a stop and approximant, as in play; a voiceless fricative and approximant, as in fly or slys and a voiceless stop, as in stay; and s, a voiceless stop, and an approximant, as in string.[152] Clusters of nasal and stop are only allowed in codas. Clusters of obstruents always agree invoicing, and clusters of sibilants and of plosives with the same point of articulation are prohibited. Furthermore, several consonants have limited distributions: /h/ can only occur in syllable-initial position, and /ŋ/ only in syllable-final position.[153]

Stress, rhythm and intonation

Stress plays an important role in English. Certain syllables are stressed, while others are unstressed. Stress is a combination of duration, intensity, vowel quality, and sometimes changes in pitch. Stressed syllables are pronounced longer and louder than unstressed syllables, and vowels in unstressed syllables are frequently reduced while vowels in stressed syllables are not.[154] Some words, primarily short function words but also some modal verbs such as can, have weak and strong forms depending on whether they occur in stressed or non-stressed position within a sentence.

Stress in English is phonemic, and some pairs of words are distinguished by stress. For instance, the word contract is stressed on the first syllable (/ˈkɒntrækt/ KON-trakt) when used as a noun, but on the last syllable (/kənˈtrækt/ kən-TRAKT) for most meanings (for example, "reduce in size") when used as a verb.[155][156][157] Here stress is connected to vowel reduction: in the noun "contract" the first syllable is stressed and has the unreduced vowel /ɒ/, but in the verb "contract" the first syllable is unstressed and its vowel is reduced to /ə/. Stress is also used to distinguish between words and phrases, so that a compound word receives a single stress unit, but the corresponding phrase has two: e.g. a burnout (/ˈbɜːrnt/) versus to burn out (/ˈbɜːrn ˈt/), and a hotdog (/ˈhɒtdɒɡ/) versus a hot dog (/ˈhɒt ˈdɒɡ/).[158]

In terms of rhythm, English is generally described as a stress-timed language, meaning that the amount of time between stressed syllables tends to be equal. Stressed syllables are pronounced longer, but unstressed syllables (syllables between stresses) are shortened. Vowels in unstressed syllables are shortened as well, and vowel shortening causes changes in vowel quality: vowel reduction.

Regional variation

Dialects and low vowels
Lexical set RP GA Can Sound change
THOUGHT /ɔː/ /ɔ/ or /ɑ/ /ɑ/ cotcaught merger
CLOTH /ɒ/ lotcloth split
LOT /ɑ/ fatherbother merger
PALM /ɑː/
BATH /æ/ /æ/ trapbath split
TRAP /æ/

Varieties of English vary the most in pronunciation of vowels. The best known national varieties used as standards for education in non English-speaking countries are British (BrE) and American (AmE). Countries such as Canada, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and South Africa have their own standard varieties which are less often used as standards for education internationally. Some differences between the various dialects are shown in the table "Varieties of Standard English and their features".[159]

English has undergone many historical sound changes, some of them affecting all varieties, and others affecting only a few. Most standard varieties are affected by the Great Vowel Shift, which changed the pronunciation of long vowels, but a few dialects have slightly different results. In North America, a number of chain shifts such as the Northern Cities Vowel Shift and Canadian Shift have produced very different vowel landscapes in some regional accents.

Some dialects have fewer or more consonant phonemes and phones than the standard varieties. Some conservative varieties like Scottish English have a voiceless [ʍ] sound in whine that contrasts with the voiced [w] in wine, but most other dialects pronounce both words with voiced [w], a dialect feature called winewhine merger. The unvoiced velar fricative sound /x/ is found in Scottish English, which distinguishes loch /lɔx/ from lock /lɔk/. Accents like Cockney with "h-dropping" lack the glottal fricative /h/, and dialects with th-stopping and th-fronting like African American Vernacular and Estuary English do not have the dental fricatives /θ, ð/, but replace them with dental or alveolar stops /t, d/ or labiodental fricatives /f, v/.[160][161] Other changes affecting the phonology of local varieties are processes such as yod-dropping, yod-coalescence, and reduction of consonant clusters.

General American and Received Pronunciation vary in their pronunciation of historical /r/ after a vowel at the end of a syllable (in the syllable coda). GA is a rhotic dialect, meaning that it pronounces /r/ at the end of a syllable, but RP is non-rhotic, meaning that it loses /r/ in that position. English dialects are classified as rhotic or non-rhotic depending on whether they elide /r/ like RP or keep it like GA.[162]

There is complex dialectal variation in words with the open front and open back vowels /æ ɑː ɒ ɔː/. These four vowels are only distinguished in RP, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. In GA, these vowels merge to three /æ ɑ ɔ/,[163] and in Canadian English, they merge to two /æ ɑ/.[164] In addition, the words that have each vowel vary by dialect. The table "Dialects and open vowels" shows this variation with lexical sets in which these sounds occur.

Grammar

As is typical of an Indo-European language, English follows accusative morphosyntactic alignment. Unlike other Indo-European languages though, English has largely abandoned the inflectional case system in favor of analytic constructions. Only the personal pronouns retain morphological case more strongly than any other word class. English distinguishes at least seven major word classes: verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, determiners (including articles), prepositions, and conjunctions. Some analyses add pronouns as a class separate from nouns, and subdivide conjunctions into subordinators and coordinators, and add the class of interjections.[165] English also has a rich set of auxiliary verbs, such as have and do, expressing the categories of mood and aspect. Questions are marked by do-support, wh-movement (fronting of question words beginning with wh-) and word order inversion with some verbs.

Some traits typical of Germanic languages persist in English, such as the distinction between irregularly inflected strong stems inflected through ablaut (i.e. changing the vowel of the stem, as in the pairs speak/spoke and foot/feet) and weak stems inflected through affixation (such as love/lovedhand/hands). Vestiges of the case and gender system are found in the pronoun system (he/him, who/whom) and in the inflection of the copula verb to be.

The seven word classes are exemplified in this sample sentence:[166]

The chairman of the committee and the loquacious politician clashed violently when the meeting started.
Det. Noun Prep. Det. Noun Conj. Det. Adj. Noun Verb Advb. Conj. Det. Noun Verb

Nouns and noun phrases

English nouns are only inflected for number and possession. New nouns can be formed through derivation or compounding. They are semantically divided into proper nouns (names) and common nouns. Common nouns are in turn divided into concrete and abstract nouns, and grammatically into count nouns and mass nouns.[167]

Most count nouns are inflected for plural number through the use of the plural suffix -s, but a few nouns have irregular plural forms. Mass nouns can only be pluralised through the use of a count noun classifier, e.g. one loaf of breadtwo loaves of bread.[168]

Regular plural formation:

Singular: cat, dog
Plural: cats, dogs

Irregular plural formation:

Singular: man, woman, foot, fish, ox, knife, mouse
Plural: men, women, feet, fish, oxen, knives, mice

Possession can be expressed either by the possessive enclitic -s (also traditionally called a genitive suffix), or by the preposition of. Historically the -s possessive has been used for animate nouns, whereas the ofpossessive has been reserved for inanimate nouns. Today this distinction is less clear, and many speakers use -s also with inanimates. Orthographically the possessive -s is separated from the noun root with an apostrophe.

Possessive constructions:

With -s: The woman's husband's child
With of: The child of the husband of the woman

Nouns can form noun phrases (NPs) where they are the syntactic head of the words that depend on them such as determiners, quantifiers, conjunctions or adjectives.[169] Noun phrases can be short, such as the man, composed only of a determiner and a noun. They can also include modifiers such as adjectives (e.g. redtallall) and specifiers such as determiners (e.g. thethat). But they can also tie together several nouns into a single long NP, using conjunctions such as and, or prepositions such as with, e.g. the tall man with the long red trousers and his skinny wife with the spectacles (this NP uses conjunctions, prepositions, specifiers, and modifiers). Regardless of length, an NP functions as a syntactic unit. For example, the possessive enclitic can, in cases which do not lead to ambiguity, follow the entire noun phrase, as in The President of India's wife, where the enclitic follows India and not President.

The class of determiners is used to specify the noun they precede in terms of definiteness, where the marks a definite noun and a or an an indefinite one. A definite noun is assumed by the speaker to be already known by the interlocutor, whereas an indefinite noun is not specified as being previously known. Quantifiers, which include onemanysome and all, are used to specify the noun in terms of quantity or number. The noun must agree with the number of the determiner, e.g. one man (sg.) but all men (pl.). Determiners are the first constituents in a noun phrase.[170]

Adjectives

Adjectives modify a noun by providing additional information about their referents. In English, adjectives come before the nouns they modify and after determiners.[171] In Modern English, adjectives are not inflected, and they do not agree in form with the noun they modify, as adjectives in most other Indo-European languages do. For example, in the phrases the slender boy, and many slender girls, the adjective slender does not change form to agree with either the number or gender of the noun.

Some adjectives are inflected for degree of comparison, with the positive degree unmarked, the suffix -er marking the comparative, and -est marking the superlative: a small boythe boy is smaller than the girlthat boy is the smallest. Some adjectives have irregular comparative and superlative forms, such as goodbetter, and best. Other adjectives have comparatives formed by periphrastic constructions, with the adverb more marking the comparative, and most marking the superlative: happier or more happythe happiest or most happy.[172] There is some variation among speakers regarding which adjectives use inflected or periphrastic comparison, and some studies have shown a tendency for the periphrastic forms to become more common at the expense of the inflected form.[173]

Pronouns, case, and person

English pronouns conserve many traits of case and gender inflection. The personal pronouns retain a difference between subjective and objective case in most persons (I/me, he/him, she/her, we/us, they/them) as well as a gender and animateness distinction in the third person singular (distinguishing he/she/it). The subjective case corresponds to the Old English nominative case, and the objective case is used both in the sense of the previous accusative case (in the role of patient, or direct object of a transitive verb), and in the sense of the Old English dative case (in the role of a recipient or indirect object of a transitive verb).[174][175] Subjective case is used when the pronoun is the subject of a finite clause, and otherwise, the objective case is used.[176] While grammarians such as Henry Sweet[177] and Otto Jespersen[178] noted that the English cases did not correspond to the traditional Latin based system, some contemporary grammars, for example Huddleston & Pullum (2002), retain traditional labels for the cases, calling them nominative and accusative cases respectively.

Possessive pronouns exist in dependent and independent forms; the dependent form functions as a determiner specifying a noun (as in my chair), while the independent form can stand alone as if it were a noun (e.g. the chair is mine).[179] The English system of grammatical person no longer has a distinction between formal and informal pronouns of address (the old 2nd person singular familiar pronoun thou acquired a pejorative or inferior tinge of meaning and was abandoned), and the forms for 2nd person plural and singular are identical except in the reflexive form. Some dialects have introduced innovative 2nd person plural pronouns such as y'all found in Southern American English and African American (Vernacular) English or youse and ye found in Irish English.

English personal pronouns
Person Subjective case Objective case Dependent possessive Independent possessive Reflexive
1st p. sg. I me my mine myself
2nd p. sg. you you your yours yourself
3rd p. sg. he/she/it him/her/it his/her/its his/hers/its himself/herself/itself
1st p. pl. we us our ours ourselves
2nd p. pl. you you your yours yourselves
3rd p. pl they them their theirs themselves

Pronouns are used to refer to entities deictically or anaphorically. A deictic pronoun points to some person or object by identifying it relative to the speech situation—for example, the pronoun I identifies the speaker, and the pronoun you, the addressee. Anaphorical pronouns such as that refer back to an entity already mentioned or assumed by the speaker to be known by the audience, for example in the sentence I already told you that. The reflexive pronouns are used when the oblique argument is identical to the subject of a phrase (e.g. "he sent it to himself" or "she braced herself for impact").[180]

Prepositions

Prepositional phrases (PP) are phrases composed of a preposition and one or more nouns, e.g. with the dogfor my friendto schoolin England. Prepositions have a wide range of uses in English. They are used to describe movement, place, and other relations between different entities, but they also have many syntactic uses such as introducing complement clauses and oblique arguments of verbs. For example, in the phrase I gave it to him, the preposition to marks the recipient, or Indirect Object of the verb to give. Traditionally words were only considered prepositions if they governed the case of the noun they preceded, for example causing the pronouns to use the objective rather than subjective form, "with her", "to me", "for us". But some contemporary grammars such as that of Huddleston & Pullum (2002:598–600) no longer consider government of case to be the defining feature of the class of prepositions, rather defining prepositions as words that can function as the heads of prepositional phrases.

Verbs and verb phrases

English verbs are inflected for tense and aspect and marked for agreement with third person singular subject. Only the copula verb to be is still inflected for agreement with the plural and first and second person subjects.[172] Auxiliary verbs such as have and be are paired with verbs in the infinitive, past, or progressive forms. They form complex tenses, aspects, and moods. Auxiliary verbs differ from other verbs in that they can be followed by the negation, and in that they can occur as the first constituent in a question sentence.[181][182]

Most verbs have six inflectional forms. The primary forms are a plain present, a third person singular present, and a preterite (past) form. The secondary forms are a plain form used for the infinitive, a gerund-participle and a past participle.[183] The copula verb to be is the only verb to retain some of its original conjugation, and takes different inflectional forms depending on the subject. The first person present tense form is am, the third person singular form is and the form are is used second person singular and all three plurals. The only verb past participle is been and its gerund-participle is being.

English inflectional forms
Inflection Strong Regular
Plain present take love
3rd person sg.
present
takes loves
Preterite took loved
Plain (infinitive) take love
Gerund–participle taking loving
Past participle taken loved

Tense, aspect and mood

English has two primary tenses, past (preterit) and non-past. The preterit is inflected by using the preterit form of the verb, which for the regular verbs includes the suffix -ed, and for the strong verbs either the suffix -t or a change in the stem vowel. The non-past form is unmarked except in the third person singular, which takes the suffix -s.[181]

 
  Present Preterite
First person I run I ran
Second person You run You ran
Third person John runs John ran

English does not have a morphologised future tense.[184] Futurity of action is expressed periphrastically with one of the auxiliary verbs will or shall.[185] Many varieties also use a near future constructed with the phrasal verb be going to.[186]

 
  Future
First person I will run
Second person You will run
Third person John will run

Further aspectual distinctions are encoded by the use of auxiliary verbs, primarily have and be, which encode the contrast between a perfect and non-perfect past tense (I have run vs. I was running), and compound tenses such as preterite perfect (I had been running) and present perfect (I have been running).[187]

For the expression of mood, English uses a number of modal auxiliaries, such as canmaywillshall and the past tense forms couldmightwouldshould. There is also a subjunctive and an imperative mood, both based on the plain form of the verb (i.e. without the third person singular -s), and which is used in subordinate clauses (e.g. subjunctive: It is important that he run every day; imperative Run!).[185]

An infinitive form, that uses the plain form of the verb and the preposition to, is used for verbal clauses that are syntactically subordinate to a finite verbal clause. Finite verbal clauses are those that are formed around a verb in the present or preterit form. In clauses with auxiliary verbs, they are the finite verbs and the main verb is treated as a subordinate clause. For example, he has to go where only the auxiliary verb have is inflected for time and the main verb to go is in the infinitive, or in a complement clause such as I saw him leave, where the main verb is to see which is in a preterite form, and leave is in the infinitive.

Phrasal verbs

English also makes frequent use of constructions traditionally called phrasal verbs, verb phrases that are made up of a verb root and a preposition or particle which follows the verb. The phrase then functions as a single predicate. In terms of intonation the preposition is fused to the verb, but in writing it is written as a separate word. Examples of phrasal verbs are to get upto ask outto back upto give upto get togetherto hang outto put up with, etc. The phrasal verb frequently has a highly idiomatic meaning that is more specialised and restricted than what can be simply extrapolated from the combination of verb and preposition complement (e.g. lay off meaning terminate someone's employment).[188] In spite of the idiomatic meaning, some grammarians, including Huddleston & Pullum (2002:274), do not consider this type of construction to form a syntactic constituent and hence refrain from using the term "phrasal verb". Instead, they consider the construction simply to be a verb with a prepositional phrase as its syntactic complement, i.e. he woke up in the morning and he ran up in the mountains are syntactically equivalent.

Adverbs

The function of adverbs is to modify the action or event described by the verb by providing additional information about the manner in which it occurs. Many adverbs are derived from adjectives with the suffix -ly, but not all, and many speakers tend to omit the suffix in the most commonly used adverbs. For example, in the phrase the woman walked quickly the adverb quickly derived from the adjective quick describes the woman's way of walking. Some commonly used adjectives have irregular adverbial forms, such as good which has the adverbial form well.

Syntax

 
In the English sentence The cat sat on the mat, the subject is the cat (a NP), the verb is sat, and on the mat is a prepositional phrase (composed of an NP the mat, and headed by the preposition on). The tree describes the structure of the sentence.

Modern English syntax language is moderately analytic.[189] It has developed features such as modal verbs and word order as resources for conveying meaning. Auxiliary verbsmark constructions such as questions, negative polarity, the passive voice and progressive aspect.

Basic constituent order

English word order has moved from the Germanic verb-second (V2) word order to being almost exclusively subject–verb–object (SVO).[190] The combination of SVO order and use of auxiliary verbs often creates clusters of two or more verbs at the centre of the sentence, such as he had hoped to try to open it.

In most sentences, English only marks grammatical relations through word order.[191] The subject constituent precedes the verb and the object constituent follows it. The example below demonstrates how the grammatical roles of each constituent is marked only by the position relative to the verb:

The dog bites the man
S V O
The man bites the dog
S V O

An exception is found in sentences where one of the constituents is a pronoun, in which case it is doubly marked, both by word order and by case inflection, where the subject pronoun precedes the verb and takes the subjective case form, and the object pronoun follows the verb and takes the objective case form. The example below demonstrates this double marking in a sentence where both object and subject is represented with a third person singular masculine pronoun:

He hit him
S V O

Indirect objects (IO) of ditransitive verbs can be placed either as the first object in a double object construction (S V IO O), such as I gave Jane the book or in a prepositional phrase, such as I gave the book to Jane [192]

Clause syntax

In English a sentence may be composed of one or more clauses, that may, in turn, be composed of one or more phrases (e.g. Noun Phrases, Verb Phrases, and Prepositional Phrases). A clause is built around a verb and includes its constituents, such as any NPs and PPs. Within a sentence, one clause is always the main clause (or matrix clause) whereas other clauses are subordinate to it. Subordinate clauses may function as arguments of the verb in the main clause. For example, in the phrase I think (that) you are lying, the main clause is headed by the verb think, the subject is I, but the object of the phrase is the subordinate clause (that) you are lying. The subordinating conjunction that shows that the clause that follows is a subordinate clause, but it is often omitted.[193] Relative clauses are clauses that function as a modifier or specifier to some constituent in the main clause: For example, in the sentence I saw the letter that you received today, the relative clause that you received today specifies the meaning of the word letter, the object of the main clause. Relative clauses can be introduced by the pronouns whowhosewhom and which as well as by that (which can also be omitted.)[194] In contrast to many other Germanic languages there is no major differences between word order in main and subordinate clauses.[195]

Auxiliary verb constructions

English syntax relies on auxiliary verbs for many functions including the expression of tense, aspect, and mood. Auxiliary verbs form main clauses, and the main verbs function as heads of a subordinate clause of the auxiliary verb. For example, in the sentence the dog did not find its bone, the clause find its bone is the complement of the negated verb did not. Subject–auxiliary inversion is used in many constructions, including focus, negation, and interrogative constructions.

The verb do can be used as an auxiliary even in simple declarative sentences, where it usually serves to add emphasis, as in "I did shut the fridge." However, in the negated and inverted clauses referred to above, it is used because the rules of English syntax permit these constructions only when an auxiliary is present. Modern English does not allow the addition of the negating adverb not to an ordinary finite lexical verb, as in *I know not—it can only be added to an auxiliary (or copular) verb, hence if there is no other auxiliary present when negation is required, the auxiliary do is used, to produce a form like I do not (don't) know. The same applies in clauses requiring inversion, including most questions—inversion must involve the subject and an auxiliary verb, so it is not possible to say *Know you him?; grammatical rules require Do you know him?[196]

Negation is done with the adverb not, which precedes the main verb and follows an auxiliary verb. A contracted form of not -n't can be used as an enclitic attaching to auxiliary verbs and to the copula verb to be. Just as with questions, many negative constructions require the negation to occur with do-support, thus in Modern English I don't know him is the correct answer to the question Do you know him?, but not *I know him not, although this construction may be found in older English.[197]

Passive constructions also use auxiliary verbs. A passive construction rephrases an active construction in such a way that the object of the active phrase becomes the subject of the passive phrase, and the subject of the active phrase is either omitted or demoted to a role as an oblique argument introduced in a prepositional phrase. They are formed by using the past participle either with the auxiliary verb to be or to get, although not all varieties of English allow the use of passives with get. For example, putting the sentence she sees him into the passive becomes he is seen (by her), or he gets seen (by her).[198]

Questions

Both yes–no questions and wh-questions in English are mostly formed using subject–auxiliary inversion (Am I going tomorrow?Where can we eat?), which may require do-support (Do you like her?Where did he go?). In most cases, interrogative words (wh-words; e.g. whatwhowherewhenwhyhow) appear in a fronted position. For example, in the question What did you see?, the word what appears as the first constituent despite being the grammatical object of the sentence. (When the wh-word is the subject or forms part of the subject, no inversion occurs: Who saw the cat?.) Prepositional phrases can also be fronted when they are the question's theme, e.g. To whose house did you go last night?. The personal interrogative pronoun who is the only interrogative pronoun to still show inflection for case, with the variant whom serving as the objective case form, although this form may be going out of use in many contexts.[199]

Discourse level syntax

While English is a subject-prominent language, at the discourse level it tends to use a topic-comment structure, where the known information (topic) precedes the new information (comment). Because of the strict SVO syntax, the topic of a sentence generally has to be the grammatical subject of the sentence. In cases where the topic is not the grammatical subject of the sentence, frequently the topic is promoted to subject position through syntactic means. One way of doing this is through a passive construction, the girl was stung by the bee. Another way is through a cleft sentence where the main clause is demoted to be a complement clause of a copula sentence with a dummy subject such as it or there, e.g. it was the girl that the bee stungthere was a girl who was stung by a bee.[200] Dummy subjects are also used in constructions where there is no grammatical subject such as with impersonal verbs (e.g., it is raining) or in existential clauses (there are many cars on the street). Through the use of these complex sentence constructions with informationally vacuous subjects, English is able to maintain both a topic-comment sentence structure and a SVO syntax.

Focus constructions emphasise a particular piece of new or salient information within a sentence, generally through allocating the main sentence level stress on the focal constituent. For example, the girl was stung by a bee (emphasising it was a bee and not, for example, a wasp that stung her), or The girl was stung by a bee (contrasting with another possibility, for example that it was the boy).[201] Topic and focus can also be established through syntactic dislocation, either preposing or postposing the item to be focused on relative to the main clause. For example, That girl over there, she was stung by a bee, emphasises the girl by preposition, but a similar effect could be achieved by postposition, she was stung by a bee, that girl over there, where reference to the girl is established as an "afterthought".[202]

Cohesion between sentences is achieved through the use of deictic pronouns as anaphora (e.g. that is exactly what I mean where that refers to some fact known to both interlocutors, or then used to locate the time of a narrated event relative to the time of a previously narrated event).[203] Discourse markers such as ohso or well, also signal the progression of ideas between sentences and help to create cohesion. Discourse markers are often the first constituents in sentences. Discourse markers are also used for stance taking in which speakers position themselves in a specific attitude towards what is being said, for example, no way is that true! (the idiomatic marker no way! expressing disbelief), or boy! I'm hungry (the marker boy expressing emphasis). While discourse markers are particularly characteristic of informal and spoken registers of English, they are also used in written and formal registers.[204]

Vocabulary

English is a rich language in terms of vocabulary, containing more synonyms than any other language.[130] There are words which appear on the surface to mean exactly the same thing but which, in fact, have slightly different shades of meaning and must be chosen appropriately if a speaker wants to convey precisely the message intended. It is generally stated that English has around 170,000 words, or 220,000 if obsolete words are counted; this estimate is based on the last full edition of the Oxford English Dictionary from 1989.[205] Over half of these words are nouns, a quarter adjectives, and a seventh verbs. There is one count that puts the English vocabulary at about 1 million words—but that count presumably includes words such as Latin species names, scientific terminology, botanical terms, prefixed and suffixed words, jargon, foreign words of extremely limited English use, and technical acronyms.[13]

Due to its status as an international language, English adopts foreign words quickly, and borrows vocabulary from many other sources. Early studies of English vocabulary by lexicographers, the scholars who formally study vocabulary, compile dictionaries, or both, were impeded by a lack of comprehensive data on actual vocabulary in use from good-quality linguistic corpora,[206] collections of actual written texts and spoken passages. Many statements published before the end of the 20th century about the growth of English vocabulary over time, the dates of first use of various words in English, and the sources of English vocabulary will have to be corrected as new computerised analysis of linguistic corpus data becomes available.[13][207]

Word formation processes

English forms new words from existing words or roots in its vocabulary through a variety of processes. One of the most productive processes in English is conversion,[208] using a word with a different grammatical role, for example using a noun as a verb or a verb as a noun. Another productive word-formation process is nominal compounding,[13][207] producing compound words such as babysitter or ice cream or homesick.[208] A process more common in Old English than in Modern English, but still productive in Modern English, is the use of derivational suffixes (-hood-ness-ing-ility) to derive new words from existing words (especially those of Germanic origin) or stems (especially for words of Latin or Greek origin).

Formation of new words, called neologisms, based on Greek and/or Latin roots (for example television or optometry) is a highly productive process in English and in most modern European languages, so much so that it is often difficult to determine in which language a neologism originated. For this reason, lexicographer Philip Gove attributed many such words to the "international scientific vocabulary" (ISV) when compiling Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1961). Another active word-formation process in English is acronyms,[209] words formed by pronouncing as a single word abbreviations of longer phrases (e.g. NATOlaser).

Word origins

 
Source languages of English vocabulary[6][210]

English, besides forming new words from existing words and their roots, also borrows words from other languages. This adoption of words from other languages is commonplace in many world languages, but English has been especially open to borrowing of foreign words throughout the last 1,000 years.[211] The most commonly used words in English are West Germanic.[212] The words in English learned first by children as they learn to speak, particularly the grammatical words that dominate the word count of both spoken and written texts, are mainly the Germanic words inherited from the earliest periods of the development of Old English.[13]

But one of the consequences of long language contact between French and English in all stages of their development is that the vocabulary of English has a very high percentage of "Latinate" words (derived from French, especially, and also from Latin and other Romance languages). French words from various periods of the development of French now make up one-third of the vocabulary of English.[213] Words of Old Norse origin have entered the English language primarily from the contact between Old Norse and Old English during colonisation of eastern and northern England. Many of these words are part of English core vocabulary, such as egg and knife.[214]

English has also borrowed many words directly from Latin, the ancestor of the Romance languages, during all stages of its development.[207][13] Many of these words had earlier been borrowed into Latin from Greek. Latin or Greek are still highly productive sources of stems used to form vocabulary of subjects learned in higher education such as the sciences, philosophy, and mathematics.[215] English continues to gain new loanwords and calques ("loan translations") from languages all over the world, and words from languages other than the ancestral Anglo-Saxon language make up about 60% of the vocabulary of English.[216]

English has formal and informal speech registers; informal registers, including child-directed speech, tend to be made up predominantly of words of Anglo-Saxon origin, while the percentage of vocabulary that is of Latinate origin is higher in legal, scientific, and academic texts.[217][218]

English loanwords and calques in other languages

English has a strong influence on the vocabulary of other languages.[213][219] The influence of English comes from such factors as opinion leaders in other countries knowing the English language, the role of English as a world lingua franca, and the large number of books and films that are translated from English into other languages.[220] That pervasive use of English leads to a conclusion in many places that English is an especially suitable language for expressing new ideas or describing new technologies. Among varieties of English, it is especially American English that influences other languages.[221] Some languages, such as Chinese, write words borrowed from English mostly as calques, while others, such as Japanese, readily take in English loanwords written in sound-indicating script.[222] Dubbed films and television programmes are an especially fruitful source of English influence on languages in Europe.[222]

Writing system

Since the ninth century, English has been written in a Latin alphabet (also called Roman alphabet). Earlier Old English texts in Anglo-Saxon runes are only short inscriptions. The great majority of literary works in Old English that survive to today are written in the Roman alphabet.[32] The modern English alphabet contains 26 letters of the Latin script: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z (which also have capitalforms: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z).

The spelling system, or orthography, of English is multi-layered, with elements of French, Latin, and Greek spelling on top of the native Germanic system.[223] Further complications have arisen through sound changeswith which the orthography has not kept pace.[44] Compared to European languages for which official organisations have promoted spelling reforms, English has spelling that is a less consistent indicator of pronunciation, and standard spellings of words that are more difficult to guess from knowing how a word is pronounced.[224] There are also systematic spelling differences between British and American English. These situations have prompted proposals for spelling reform in English.[225]

Although letters and speech sounds do not have a one-to-one correspondence in standard English spelling, spelling rules that take into account syllable structure, phonetic changes in derived words, and word accent are reliable for most English words.[226] Moreover, standard English spelling shows etymological relationships between related words that would be obscured by a closer correspondence between pronunciation and spelling, for example the words photographphotography, and photographic,[226] or the words electricity and electrical. While few scholars agree with Chomsky and Halle (1968) that conventional English orthography is "near-optimal",[223] there is a rationale for current English spelling patterns.[227] The standard orthography of English is the most widely used writing system in the world.[228] Standard English spelling is based on a graphomorphemic segmentation of words into written clues of what meaningful units make up each word.[229]

Readers of English can generally rely on the correspondence between spelling and pronunciation to be fairly regular for letters or digraphs used to spell consonant sounds. The letters bdfhjklmnprstvwyz represent, respectively, the phonemes /b, d, f, h, dʒ, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, j, z/. The letters c and g normally represent /k/ and /ɡ/, but there is also a soft c pronounced /s/, and a soft g pronounced /dʒ/. The differences in the pronunciations of the letters c and g are often signalled by the following letters in standard English spelling. Digraphs used to represent phonemes and phoneme sequences include ch for /tʃ/sh for /ʃ/thfor /θ/ or /ð/ng for /ŋ/qu for /kw/, and ph for /f/ in Greek-derived words. The single letter x is generally pronounced as /z/ in word-initial position and as /ks/ otherwise. There are exceptions to these generalisations, often the result of loanwords being spelled according to the spelling patterns of their languages of origin[226] or proposals by pedantic scholars in the early period of Modern English to mistakenly follow the spelling patterns of Latin for English words of Germanic origin.[230]

For the vowel sounds of the English language, however, correspondences between spelling and pronunciation are more irregular. There are many more vowel phonemes in English than there are single vowel letters (aeiouwy). As a result, some "long vowels" are often indicated by combinations of letters (like the oa in boat, the ow in how, and the ay in stay), or the historically based silent e (as in note and cake).[227]

The consequence of this complex orthographic history is that learning to read can be challenging in English. It can take longer for school pupils to become independently fluent readers of English than of many other languages, including Italian, Spanish, and German.[231] Nonetheless, there is an advantage for learners of English reading in learning the specific sound-symbol regularities that occur in the standard English spellings of commonly used words.[226] Such instruction greatly reduces the risk of children experiencing reading difficulties in English.[232][233] Making primary school teachers more aware of the primacy of morpheme representation in English may help learners learn more efficiently to read and write English.[234]

English writing also includes a system of punctuation marks that is similar to those used in most alphabetic languages around the world. The purpose of punctuation is to mark meaningful grammatical relationships in sentences to aid readers in understanding a text and to indicate features important for reading a text aloud.[235]

Dialects, accents, and varieties

Dialectologists identify many English dialects, which usually refer to regional varieties that differ from each other in terms of patterns of grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. The pronunciation of particular areas distinguishes dialects as separate regional accents. The major native dialects of English are often divided by linguists into the two extremely general categories of British English (BrE) and North American English(NAE).[236] There also exists a third common major grouping of English varieties: Southern Hemisphere English, the most prominent being Australian and New Zealand English.

United Kingdom and Ireland

 
Map showing the main dialect regions in the UK and Ireland

As the place where English first evolved, the British Isles, and particularly England, are home to the most diverse dialects. Within the United Kingdom, the Received Pronunciation(RP), an educated dialect of South East England, is traditionally used as the broadcast standard and is considered the most prestigious of the British dialects. The spread of RP (also known as BBC English) through the media has caused many traditional dialects of rural England to recede, as youths adopt the traits of the prestige variety instead of traits from local dialects. At the time of the Survey of English Dialects, grammar and vocabulary differed across the country, but a process of lexical attrition has led most of this variation to disappear.[237]

Nonetheless this attrition has mostly affected dialectal variation in grammar and vocabulary, and in fact, only 3 percent of the English population actually speak RP, the remainder speaking regional accents and dialects with varying degrees of RP influence.[238] There is also variability within RP, particularly along class lines between Upper and Middle-class RP speakers and between native RP speakers and speakers who adopt RP later in life.[239] Within Britain, there is also considerable variation along lines of social class, and some traits though exceedingly common are considered "non-standard" and are associated with lower class speakers and identities. An example of this is H-dropping, which was historically a feature of lower-class London English, particularly Cockney, and can now be heard in the local accents of most parts of England—yet it remains largely absent in broadcasting and among the upper crust of British society.[240]

English in England can be divided into four major dialect regions, Southwest English, South East English, Midlands English, and Northern English. Within each of these regions several local subdialects exist: Within the Northern region, there is a division between the Yorkshire dialects, and the Geordie dialect spoken in Northumbria around Newcastle, and the Lancashire dialects with local urban dialects in Liverpool (Scouse) and Manchester (Mancunian). Having been the centre of Danish occupation during the Viking Invasions, Northern English dialects, particularly the Yorkshire dialect, retain Norse features not found in other English varieties.[241]

Since the 15th century, southeastern England varieties centred around London, which has been the centre from which dialectal innovations have spread to other dialects. In London, the Cockney dialect was traditionally used by the lower classes, and it was long a socially stigmatised variety. The spread of Cockney features across the south-east led the media to talk of Estuary English as a new dialect, but the notion was criticised by many linguists on the grounds that London had influencing neighbouring regions throughout history.[242][243][244] Traits that have spread from London in recent decades include the use of intrusive R (drawing is pronounced drawring /ˈdrɔːrɪŋ/), t-glottalisation (Potter is pronounced with a glottal stop as Po'er /poʔʌ/), and the pronunciation of th- as /f/ (thanks pronounced fanks) or /v/ (bother pronounced bover). [245]

Scots is today considered a separate language from English, but it has its origins in early Northern Middle English[246] and developed and changed during its history with influence from other sources, particularly Scots Gaelic and Old Norse. Scots itself has a number of regional dialects. And in addition to Scots, Scottish English are the varieties of Standard English spoken in Scotland, most varieties are Northern English accents, with some influence from Scots.[247]

In Ireland, various forms of English have been spoken since the Norman invasions of the 11th century. In County Wexford, in the area surrounding Dublin, two extinct dialects known as Forth and Bargy and Fingallian developed as offshoots from Early Middle English, and were spoken until the 19th century. Modern Irish English, however, has its roots in English colonisation in the 17th century. Today Irish English is divided into Ulster English, the Northern Ireland dialect with strong influence from Scots, as well as various dialects of the Republic of Ireland. Like Scottish and most North American accents, almost all Irish accents preserve the rhoticity which has been lost in the dialects influenced by RP.[19][248]

North America

North American English is fairly homogeneous compared to British English. Today, American accent variation is often increasing at the regional level and decreasing at the very local level,[249] though most Americans still speak within a phonological continuum of similar accents,[250] known collectively as General American (GA), with differences hardly noticed even among Americans themselves (such as Midland and Western American English).[251][252][253] In most American and Canadian English dialects, rhoticity (or r-fulness) is dominant, with non-rhoticity (r-dropping) becoming associated with lower prestige and social class especially after World War II; this contrasts with the situation in England, where non-rhoticity has become the standard.[254]

Separate from GA are American dialects with clearly distinct sound systems, historically including Southern American English, English of the coastal Northeast (famously including Eastern New England English and New York City English), and African American Vernacular English, all of which are historically non-rhotic. Canadian English, except for the Atlantic provinces and perhaps Quebec, may be classified under GA as well, but it often shows the raising of the vowels // and //before voiceless consonants, as well as distinct norms for written and pronunciation standards.[255]

In Southern American English, the most populous American "accent group" outside of GA,[256] rhoticity now strongly prevails, replacing the region's historical non-rhotic prestige.[257][258][259] Southern accents are colloquially described as a "drawl" or "twang,"[260] being recognised most readily by the Southern Vowel Shift initiated by glide-deleting in the /aɪ/ vowel (e.g. pronouncing spy almost like spa), the "Southern breaking" of several front pure vowels into a gliding vowel or even two syllables (e.g. pronouncing the word "press" almost like "pray-us"),[261] the pin–pen merger, and other distinctive phonological, grammatical, and lexical features, many of which are actually recent developments of the 19th century or later.[262]

Today spoken primarily by working- and middle-class African Americans, African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) is also largely non-rhotic and likely originated among enslaved Africans and African Americans influenced primarily by the non-rhotic, non-standard older Southern dialects. A minority of linguists,[263] contrarily, propose that AAVE mostly traces back to African languages spoken by the slaves who had to develop a pidgin or Creole English to communicate with slaves of other ethnic and linguistic origins.[264] AAVE's important commonalities with Southern accents suggests it developed into a highly coherent and homogeneous variety in the 19th or early 20th century. AAVE is commonly stigmatised in North America as a form of "broken" or "uneducated" English, as are white Southern accents, but linguists today recognise both as fully developed varieties of English with their own norms shared by a large speech community.[265][266]

Australia and New Zealand

Africa, the Caribbean, and South Asia

Nigerian English is a dialect of English spoken in Nigeria.[276] It is based on British English, but in recent years, because of influence from the United States, some words of American English origin have made it into Nigerian English. Additionally, some new words and collocations have emerged from the language, which come from the need to express concepts specific to the culture of the nation (e.g. senior wife). Over 150 million population of Nigerians speak English.[277]

Several varieties of English are also spoken in the Caribbean Islands that were colonial possessions of Britain, including Jamaica, and the Leeward and Windward Islands and Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, the Cayman Islands, and Belize. Each of these areas are home both to a local variety of English and a local English based creole, combining English and African languages. The most prominent varieties are Jamaican English and Jamaican Creole. In Central America, English based creoles are spoken in on the Caribbean coasts of Nicaragua and Panama.[278] Locals are often fluent both in the local English variety and the local creole languages and code-switching between them is frequent, indeed another way to conceptualise the relationship between Creole and Standard varieties is to see a spectrum of social registers with the Creole forms serving as "basilect" and the more RP-like forms serving as the "acrolect", the most formal register.[279]

Most Caribbean varieties are based on British English and consequently, most are non-rhotic, except for formal styles of Jamaican English which are often rhotic. Jamaican English differs from RP in its vowel inventory, which has a distinction between long and short vowels rather than tense and lax vowels as in Standard English. The diphthongs /ei/ and /ou/ are monophthongs [eː] and [oː] or even the reverse diphthongs [ie] and [uo](e.g. bay and boat pronounced [bʲeː] and [bʷoːt]). Often word-final consonant clusters are simplified so that "child" is pronounced [t͡ʃail] and "wind" [win].[280][281][282]

As a historical legacy, Indian English tends to take RP as its ideal, and how well this ideal is realised in an individual's speech reflects class distinctions among Indian English speakers. Indian English accents are marked by the pronunciation of phonemes such as /t/ and /d/ (often pronounced with retroflex articulation as [ʈ] and [ɖ]) and the replacement of /θ/ and /ð/ with dentals [t̪] and [d̪]. Sometimes Indian English speakers may also use spelling based pronunciations where the silent ⟨h⟩ found in words such as ghost is pronounced as an Indian voiced aspirated stop [ɡʱ].[283]

References

  1. ^ Oxford Learner's Dictionary 2015, Entry: English – Pronunciation.
  2. a b Crystal 2006, pp. 424–426.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Standard English". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Crystal 2003a, p. 6.
  5. ^ Wardhaugh 2010, p. 55.
  6. a b Finkenstaedt, Thomas; Dieter Wolff (1973). Ordered profusion; studies in dictionaries and the English lexicon. C. Winter. ISBN 3-533-02253-6.
  7. ^ Crystal 2003b, p. 30.
  8. ^ "How English evolved into a global language". BBC. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  9. a b The Routes of English.
  10. a b Ethnologue 2010.
  11. a b Crystal 2003b, pp. 108–109.
  12. ^ HowManyWords 2015.
  13. a b c d e f Algeo 1999.
  14. ^ König 1994, p. 539.
  15. ^ Bammesberger 1992, pp. 29–30.
  16. ^ Bammesberger 1992, p. 30.
  17. ^ Robinson 1992.
  18. ^ Romaine 1982, pp. 56–65.
  19. a b Barry 1982, pp. 86–87.
  20. ^ Harbert 2007.
  21. ^ Thomason & Kaufman 1988, pp. 264–265.
  22. ^ Watts 2011, Chapter 4.
  23. ^ Durrell 2006.
  24. ^ König & van der Auwera 1994.
  25. ^ Collingwood & Myres 1936.
  26. ^ Graddol, Leith & Swann et al. 2007.
  27. ^ Blench & Spriggs 1999.
  28. ^ Bosworth & Toller 1921.
  29. ^ Campbell 1959, p. 4.
  30. ^ Toon 1992, Chapter: Old English Dialects.
  31. ^ Donoghue 2008.
  32. a b c Gneuss 2013, p. 23.
  33. ^ Denison & Hogg 2006, pp. 30–31.
  34. ^ Hogg 1992, Chapter 3. Phonology and Morphology.
  35. ^ Smith 2009.
  36. ^ Trask & Trask 2010.
  37. a b Lass 2006, pp. 46–47.
  38. ^ Hogg 2006, pp. 360–361.
  39. ^ Thomason & Kaufman 1988, pp. 284–290.
  40. ^ Svartvik & Leech 2006, p. 39.
  41. ^ Lass 1992.
  42. ^ Fischer & van der Wurff 2006, pp. 111–13.
  43. ^ Wycliffe, John. "Bible" (PDF). Wesley NNU.
  44. a b Lass 2000.
  45. ^ Görlach 1991, pp. 66–70.
  46. ^ Nevalainen & Tieken-Boon van Ostade 2006, pp. 274–79.
  47. ^ Cercignani 1981.
  48. ^ How English evolved into a global language 2010.
  49. ^ Romaine 2006, p. 586.
  50. a b Mufwene 2006, p. 614.
  51. a b Northrup 2013, pp. 81–86.
  52. ^ Baker, Colin (August 1998). "Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education, page CCCXI". Multilingual Matters Ltd. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  53. a b c Graddol 2006.
  54. a b c Crystal 2003a.
  55. a b McCrum, MacNeil & Cran 2003, pp. 9–10.
  56. a b Romaine 1999, pp. 1–56.
  57. ^ Romaine 1999, p. 2.
  58. ^ Leech et al. 2009, pp. 18–19.
  59. ^ Mair & Leech 2006.
  60. ^ Mair 2006.
  61. ^ "Which countries are best at English as a second language?". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  62. a b Crystal 2003a, p. 69.
  63. ^ "English". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2016-10-29.
  64. ^ "Chinese, Mandarin". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 26 September 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-29.
  65. ^ Crystal 2003b, p. 106.
  66. a b Svartvik & Leech 2006, p. 2.
  67. a b Kachru 2006, p. 196.
  68. a b Ryan 2013, Table 1.
  69. ^ Office for National Statistics 2013, Key Points.
  70. ^ National Records of Scotland 2013.
  71. ^ Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency 2012, Table KS207NI: Main Language.
  72. ^ Statistics Canada 2014.
  73. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics 2013.
  74. ^ Statistics South Africa 2012, Table 2.5 Population by first language spoken and province (number).
  75. ^ Statistics New Zealand 2014.
  76. a b c d Bao 2006, p. 377.
  77. ^ Rubino 2006.
  78. ^ Patrick 2006a.
  79. ^ Lim & Ansaldo 2006.
  80. ^ Connell 2006.
  81. ^ Schneider 2007.
  82. a b Trudgill & Hannah 2008, p. 5.
  83. ^ Trudgill & Hannah 2008, p. 4.
  84. ^ European Commission 2012.
  85. ^ Kachru 2006, p. 197.
  86. ^ Kachru 2006, p. 198.
  87. ^ Bao 2006.
  88. ^ Trudgill & Hannah 2008, p. 7.
  89. ^ Trudgill & Hannah 2008, p. 2.
  90. ^ Romaine 1999.
  91. ^ Baugh & Cable 2002.
  92. ^ Trudgill & Hannah 2008, pp. 8–9.
  93. ^ Ammon 2008, p. 1539.
  94. ^ Marsh, David (26 November 2010). "Lickety splits: two nations divided by a common language". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 26 December2015.
  95. ^ Trudgill 2006.
  96. ^ Ammon 2008, pp. 1537–1539.
  97. ^ Svartvik & Leech 2006, p. 122.
  98. ^ Trudgill & Hannah 2008, pp. 5–6.
  99. ^ Deumert 2006, p. 130.
  100. ^ Deumert 2006, p. 131.
  101. ^ Crawford, James (1 February 2012). "Language Legislation in the U.S.A." languagepolicy.net. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  102. ^ "States with Official English Laws". us-english.org. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  103. ^ Romaine 1999, p. 5.
  104. ^ Svartvik & Leech 2006, p. 1.
  105. ^ Kachru 2006, p. 195.
  106. ^ Mazrui & Mazrui 1998.
  107. ^ Mesthrie 2010, p. 594.
  108. ^ Annamalai 2006.
  109. ^ Sailaja 2009, pp. 2–9.
  110. ^ "Indiaspeak: English is our 2nd language – The Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  111. ^ "Human Development in India: Challenges for a Society in Transition" (PDF)Oxford University Press. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  112. ^ Crystal 2004.
  113. ^ Graddol 2010.
  114. ^ Meierkord 2006, p. 165.
  115. ^ Brutt-Griffler 2006, p. 690–91.
  116. a b Northrup 2013.
  117. ^ Wojcik 2006, p. 139.
  118. ^ International Maritime Organization 2011.
  119. ^ International Civil Aviation Organization 2011.
  120. ^ Gordin 2015.
  121. ^ Phillipson 2004, p. 47.
  122. ^ ConradRubal-Lopez 1996, p. 261.
  123. ^ Richter 2012, p. 29.
  124. ^ United Nations 2008.
  125. ^ Ammon 2006, p. 321.
  126. ^ European Commission 2012, pp. 21, 19.
  127. ^ Alcaraz Ariza & Navarro 2006.
  128. ^ Brutt-Griffler 2006, p. 694–95.
  129. ^ Crystal 2002.
  130. a b Jambor 2007.
  131. ^ Svartvik & Leech 2006, Chapter 12: English into the Future.
  132. ^ Crystal 2006.
  133. ^ Brutt-Griffler 2006.
  134. ^ Li 2003.
  135. ^ Meierkord 2006, p. 163.
  136. ^ Wolfram 2006, pp. 334–335.
  137. ^ Carr & Honeybone 2007.
  138. ^ Bermúdez-Otero & McMahon 2006.
  139. ^ MacMahon 2006.
  140. ^ International Phonetic Association 1999, pp. 41–42.
  141. ^ König 1994, p. 534.
  142. ^ Collins & Mees 2003, pp. 47–53.
  143. ^ Trudgill & Hannah 2008, p. 13.
  144. ^ Trudgill & Hannah 2008, p. 41.
  145. ^ Brinton & Brinton 2010, pp. 56–59.
  146. ^ Wells, John C. (8 February 2001). "IPA transcription systems for English". University College London.
  147. ^ Collins & Mees 2003, pp. 46–50.
  148. ^ Cruttenden 2014, p. 138.
  149. ^ Flemming & Johnson 2007.
  150. ^ Wells 1982, p. 167.
  151. ^ Wells 1982, p. 121.
  152. ^ Brinton & Brinton 2010, p. 60.
  153. ^ König 1994, pp. 537–538.
  154. ^ International Phonetic Association 1999, p. 42.
  155. ^ Oxford Learner's Dictionary 2015, Entry "contract".
  156. ^ Merriam Webster 2015, Entry "contract".
  157. ^ Macquarie Dictionary 2015, Entry "contract".
  158. ^ Brinton & Brinton 2010, p. 66.
  159. a b Trudgill & Hannah 2002, pp. 4–6.
  160. ^ Roach 2009, p. 53.
  161. ^ Giegerich 1992, p. 36.
  162. ^ Lass 2000, p. 114.
  163. ^ Wells 1982, pp. xviii-xix.
  164. ^ Wells 1982, p. 493.
  165. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 22.
  166. ^ Aarts & Haegeman (2006), p. 118.
  167. ^ Payne & Huddleston 2002.
  168. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 56–57.
  169. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 55.
  170. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, pp. 54–5.
  171. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 57.
  172. a b König 1994, p. 540.
  173. ^ Mair 2006, pp. 148–49.
  174. ^ Leech 2006, p. 69.
  175. ^ O'Dwyer 2006.
  176. ^ Greenbaum & Nelson 2002.
  177. ^ Sweet 2014, p. 52.
  178. ^ Jespersen 2007, pp. 173-185.
  179. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 425–26.
  180. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 426.
  181. a b Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 51.
  182. ^ König 1994, p. 541.
  183. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 50.
  184. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, pp. 208–210.
  185. a b Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 51–52.
  186. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, pp. 210–11.
  187. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 50–51.
  188. ^ Dixon 1982.
  189. ^ McArthur 1992, pp. 64, 610–611.
  190. ^ König 1994, p. 553.
  191. ^ König 1994, p. 550.
  192. ^ König 1994, p. 551.
  193. ^ Miller 2002, pp. 60–69.
  194. ^ König 1994, p. 545.
  195. ^ König 1994, p. 557.
  196. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 114.
  197. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, pp. 786–790.
  198. ^ Miller 2002, pp. 26–27.
  199. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, pp. 7-8.
  200. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, pp. 1365–70.
  201. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 1370.
  202. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 1366.
  203. ^ Halliday & Hasan 1976.
  204. ^ Schiffrin 1988.
  205. ^ "How many words are there in the English language?", Oxford Dictionaries
  206. ^ Leech et al. 2009, pp. 24–50.
  207. a b c Kastovsky 2006.
  208. a b Crystal 2003b, p. 129.
  209. ^ Crystal 2003b, pp. 120–121.
  210. ^ "Joseph M. Willams, Origins of the English Language at". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
  211. ^ Denning, Kessler & Leben 2007, p. 7.
  212. ^ Nation 2001, p. 265.
  213. a b Gottlieb 2006, p. 196.
  214. ^ Denning, Kessler & Leben 2007.
  215. ^ Romaine 1999, p. 4.
  216. ^ Fasold & Connor-Linton 2014, p. 302.
  217. ^ Crystal 2003b, pp. 124–127.
  218. ^ Algeo 1999, pp. 80–81.
  219. ^ Brutt-Griffler 2006, p. 692.
  220. ^ Gottlieb 2006, p. 197.
  221. ^ Gottlieb 2006, p. 198.
  222. a b Gottlieb 2006, p. 202.
  223. a b Swan 2006, p. 149.
  224. ^ Mountford 2006.
  225. ^ Neijt 2006.
  226. a b c d Daniels & Bright 1996, p. 653.
  227. a b Abercrombie & Daniels 2006.
  228. ^ Mountford 2006, p. 156.
  229. ^ Mountford 2006, pp. 157–158.
  230. ^ Daniels & Bright 1996, p. 654.
  231. ^ Dehaene 2009.
  232. ^ McGuinness 1997.
  233. ^ Shaywitz 2003.
  234. ^ Mountford 2006, pp. 159.
  235. ^ Lawler 2006, p. 290.
  236. ^ Crystal 2003b, p. 107.
  237. ^ Trudgill 1999, p. 125.
  238. ^ Hughes & Trudgill 1996, p. 3.
  239. ^ Hughes & Trudgill 1996, p. 37.
  240. ^ Hughes & Trudgill 1996, p. 40.
  241. ^ Hughes & Trudgill 1996, p. 31.
  242. ^ "Estuary English Q and A - JCW". Phon.ucl.ac.uk. Retrieved 2010-08-16.
  243. ^ Roach 2009, p. 4.
  244. ^ Trudgill 1999, p. 80.
  245. ^ Trudgill 1999, pp. 80–81.
  246. ^ Aitken & McArthur 1979, p. 81.
  247. ^ Romaine 1982.
  248. ^ Hickey 2007.
  249. ^ Labov 2012.
  250. ^ Wells 1982, p. 34.
  251. ^ Rowicka 2006.
  252. ^ Toon 1982.
  253. ^ Cassidy 1982.
  254. ^ Labov 1972.
  255. ^ Boberg 2010.
  256. ^ "Do You Speak American: What Lies Ahead". PBS. Retrieved 15 August 2007.
  257. ^ Thomas, Erik R. (2003), "Rural White Southern Accents" (PDF)Atlas of North American English (online), Mouton de Gruyter, p. 16. [Later published as a chapter in: Bernd Kortmann and Edgar W. Schneider (eds) (2004). A Handbook of Varieties of English: A Multimedia Reference Tool. New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 300-324.]
  258. ^ Levine & Crockett 1966.
  259. ^ Schönweitz 2001.
  260. ^ Montgomery 1993.
  261. ^ Thomas 2008, p. 95–96.
  262. ^ Bailey 1997.
  263. ^ McWhorter, John H. (2001). Word on the Street: Debunking the Myth of a "Pure" Standard English. Basic Books. p. 162.
  264. ^ Bailey 2001.
  265. ^ Green 2002.
  266. ^ Patrick 2006b.
  267. ^ Eagleson 1982.
  268. ^ Trudgill & Hannah 2002, pp. 16–21.
  269. ^ Burridge 2010.
  270. ^ Trudgill & Hannah 2002, pp. 24–26.
  271. ^ Maclagan 2010.
  272. ^ Gordon, Campbell & Hay et al. 2004.
  273. ^ Lanham 1982.
  274. ^ Lass 2002.
  275. ^ Trudgill & Hannah 2002, pp. 30–31.
  276. ^ "Nigerian English". Encarta. Microsoft. Archived from the originalon 9 September 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  277. ^ Adegbija, Efurosebina. (1989) "Lexico-semantic variation in Nigerian English", World Englishes, 8(2), 165–177.
  278. ^ Lawton 1982.
  279. ^ Trudgill & Hannah 2002, p. 115.
  280. ^ Trudgill & Hannah 2002, pp. 117–18.
  281. ^ Lawton 1982, p. 256–60.
  282. ^ Trudgill & Hannah 2002, pp. 115–16.
  283. ^ Sailaja 2009, pp. 19–24.

Bibliography

Aarts, Bas; Haegeman, Liliane (2006). "6. English Word classes and Phrases". In Aarts, Bas; McMahon, April. The Handbook of English Linguistics. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Abercrombie, D.; Daniels, Peter T. (2006). "Spelling Reform Proposals: English". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/04878-1. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Aitken, A. J.; McArthur, Tom, eds. (1979). Languages of Scotland. Occasional paper – Association for Scottish Literary Studies; no. 4. Edinburgh: Chambers. ISBN 978-0-550-20261-1.
Alcaraz Ariza, M. Á.; Navarro, F. (2006). "Medicine: Use of English". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 752–759. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/02351-8. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Algeo, John (1999). "Chapter 2:Vocabulary". In Romaine, Suzanne. Cambridge History of the English Language. IV: 1776–1997. Cambridge University Press. pp. 57–91. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521264778.003. ISBN 978-0-521-26477-8.
Ammon, Ulrich (November 2006). "Language Conflicts in the European Union: On finding a politically acceptable and practicable solution for EU institutions that satisfies diverging interests". International Journal of Applied Linguistics16 (3): 319–338. doi:10.1111/j.1473-4192.2006.00121.x.
Ammon, Ulrich (2008). "Pluricentric and Divided Languages". In Ammon, Ulrich N.; Dittmar, Norbert; Mattheier, Klaus J.; et al. Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society / Soziolinguistik Ein internationales Handbuch zur Wissenschaft vov Sprache and Gesellschaft. Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science / Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft 3/2. 2 (2nd completely revised and extended ed.). de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-019425-8. Retrieved 19 December 2014 – via De Gruyter. (Subscription required (help)).
Annamalai, E. (2006). "India: Language Situation". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 610–613. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/04611-3. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Australian Bureau of Statistics (28 March 2013). "2011 Census QuickStats: Australia". Archived from the original on 6 November 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
Bailey, Guy (2001). "Chapter 3: The relationship between African American and White Vernaculars". In Lanehart, Sonja L. Sociocultural and historical contexts of African American English. Varieties of English around the World. John Benjamins. pp. 53–84. ISBN 978-1-58811-046-6.
Bailey, G. (1997). "When did southern American English begin". In Edgar W. Schneider. Englishes around the world. pp. 255–275.
Bammesberger, Alfred (1992). "Chapter 2: The Place of English in Germanic and Indo-European". In Hogg, Richard M. The Cambridge History of the English Language. 1: The Beginnings to 1066. Cambridge University Press. pp. 26–66. ISBN 978-0-521-26474-7.
Bao, Z. (2006). "Variation in Nonnative Varieties of English". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 377–380. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/04257-7. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Barry, Michael V. (1982). "English in Ireland". In Bailey, Richard W.; Görlach, Manfred. English as a World Language. University of Michigan Press. pp. 84–134. ISBN 978-3-12-533872-2.
Bauer, Laurie; Huddleston, Rodney (15 April 2002). "Chapter 19: Lexical Word-Formation". In Huddleston, Rodney; Pullum, Geoffrey K. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1621–1721. ISBN 978-0-521-43146-0. Retrieved 10 February2015. Lay summary (PDF) (10 February 2015).
Baugh, Albert C.; Cable, Thomas (2002). A History of the English Language(5th ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-0-13-015166-7.
Bermúdez-Otero, Ricardo; McMahon, April (2006). "Chapter 17: English phonology and morphology". In Bas Aarts; April McMahon. The Handbook of English Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 382–410. doi:10.1111/b.9781405113823.2006.00018.x. ISBN 978-1-4051-6425-2. Archived from the original on 3 April 2017. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
Blench, R.; Spriggs, Matthew (1999). Archaeology and Language: Correlating Archaeological and Linguistic Hypotheses. Routledge. pp. 285–286. ISBN 978-0-415-11761-6.
Boberg, Charles (2010). The English language in Canada: Status, history and comparative analysis. Studies in English Language. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-49144-0. Lay summary (2 April 2015).
Bosworth, Joseph; Toller, T. Northcote (1921). "Engla land". An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (Online). Charles University. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
Brinton, Laurel J.; Brinton, Donna M. (2010). The linguistic structure of modern English. John Benjamins. ISBN 978-902728824-0. Retrieved 2 April2015.
Brutt-Griffler, J. (2006). "Languages of Wider Communication". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 690–697. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/00644-1. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Burridge, Kate (2010). "Chapter 7: English in Australia". In Kirkpatrick, Andy. The Routledge handbook of world Englishes. Routledge. pp. 132–151. ISBN 978-0-415-62264-6. Lay summary (29 March 2015).
Campbell, Alistair (1959). Old English Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-811943-7.
Carr, Philip; Honeybone, Patrick (2007). "English phonology and linguistic theory: an introduction to issues, and to 'Issues in English Phonology'". Language Sciences29 (2): 117–153. doi:10.1016/j.langsci.2006.12.018. Retrieved 2 April 2015. – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Cassidy, Frederic G. (1982). "Geographical Variation of English in the United States". In Bailey, Richard W.; Görlach, Manfred. English as a World Language. University of Michigan Press. pp. 177–210. ISBN 978-3-12-533872-2.
Cercignani, Fausto (1981). Shakespeare's works and Elizabethan pronunciation. Clarendon Press. Retrieved 14 March 2015. Lay summary (15 March 2015).
Collingwood, Robin George; Myres, J. N. L. (1936). "Chapter XX. The Sources for the period: Angles, Saxons, and Jutes on the Continent". Roman Britain and the English Settlements. Book V: The English Settlements. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. LCCN 37002621. Lay summary(15 March 2015).
Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981]. The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.). Leiden: Brill Publishers. ISBN 9004103406.
Connell, B. A. (2006). "Nigeria: Language Situation". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 88–90. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/01655-2. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 25 March 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Conrad, Andrew W.; Rubal-Lopez, Alma (1 January 1996). Post-Imperial English: Status Change in Former British and American Colonies, 1940–1990. de Gruyter. p. 261. ISBN 978-3-11-087218-7. Retrieved 2 April2015 – via De Gruyter. (Subscription required (help)).
Cruttenden, Alan (2014). Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-4441-8309-2.
Crystal, David (2002). Language Death. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139106856. ISBN 978-1-139-10685-6. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
Crystal, David (2003a). English as a Global Language (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-521-53032-3. Retrieved 4 February2015. Lay summary (PDF) – Library of Congress (sample) (4 February 2015).
Crystal, David (2003b). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53033-4. Retrieved 4 February 2015. Lay summary (4 February 2015).
Crystal, David (2004). "Subcontinent Raises Its Voice". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
Crystal, David (2006). "Chapter 9: English worldwide". In Denison, David; Hogg, Richard M. A History of the English language. Cambridge University Press. pp. 420–439. ISBN 978-0-511-16893-2.
Daniels, Peter T.; Bright, William, eds. (6 June 1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507993-7. Retrieved 23 February 2015. Lay summary (23 February 2015).
Dehaene, Stanislas (2009). Reading in the Brain: The Science and Evolution of a Human Invention. Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-02110-9. Retrieved 3 April 2015. Lay summary (3 April 2015).
Denison, David; Hogg, Richard M. (2006). "Overview". In Denison, David; Hogg, Richard M. A History of the English language. Cambridge University Press. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-0-521-71799-1.
Denning, Keith; Kessler, Brett; Leben, William Ronald (17 February 2007). English Vocabulary Elements. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516803-7. Retrieved 25 February 2015. Lay summary (25 February 2015).
Department for Communities and Local Government (United Kingdom) (27 February 2007). Second Report submitted by the United Kingdom pursuant to article 25, paragraph 1 of the framework convention for the protection of national minorities (PDF) (Report). Council of Europe. ACFC/SR/II(2007)003 rev1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
Deumert, A. (2006). "Migration and Language". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 129–133. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/01294-3. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Dixon, R. M. W. (1982). "The grammar of English phrasal verbs". Australian Journal of Linguistics2 (1): 1–42. doi:10.1080/07268608208599280.
Donoghue, D. (2008). Old English Literature: A Short Introduction. Wiley. doi:10.1002/9780470776025. ISBN 978-0-631-23486-9. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
Durrell, M. (2006). "Germanic Languages". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 53–55. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/02189-1. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Eagleson, Robert D. (1982). "English in Australia and New Zealand". In Bailey, Richard W.; Görlach, Manfred. English as a World Language. University of Michigan Press. pp. 415–438. ISBN 978-3-12-533872-2.
"Summary by language size". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
European Commission (June 2012). Special Eurobarometer 386: Europeans and Their Languages (PDF) (Report). Eurobarometer Special Surveys. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2015. Lay summary (PDF) (27 March 2015).
Fasold, Ralph W.; Connor-Linton, Jeffrey, eds. (2014). An Introduction to Language and Linguistics (Second ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-316-06185-5.
Fischer, Olga; van der Wurff, Wim (2006). "Chapter 3: Syntax". In Denison, David; Hogg, Richard M. A History of the English language. Cambridge University Press. pp. 109–198. ISBN 978-0-521-71799-1.
Flemming, Edward; Johnson, Stephanie (2007). "Rosa's roses: reduced vowels in American English" (PDF)Journal of the International Phonetic Association37 (1): 83–96. doi:10.1017/S0025100306002817.
Giegerich, Heinz J. (1992). English Phonology: An Introduction. Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-33603-1.
Gneuss, Helmut (2013). "Chapter 2: The Old English Language". In Godden, Malcolm; Lapidge, Michael. The Cambridge companion to Old English literature (Second ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 19–49. ISBN 978-0-521-15402-4.
Görlach, Manfred (1991). Introduction to Early Modern English. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-32529-3.
Gordin, Michael D. (4 February 2015). "Absolute English". Aeon. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
Gordon, Elizabeth; Campbell, Lyle; Hay, Jennifer; Maclagan, Margaret; Sudbury, Angela; Trudgill, Peter (2004). New Zealand English: its origins and evolution. Studies in English Language. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-10895-9.
Gottlieb, H. (2006). "Linguistic Influence". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 196–206. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/04455-2. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Graddol, David (2006). English Next: Why global English may mean the end of 'English as a Foreign Language' (PDF). The British Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 7 February2015. Lay summary – ELT Journal (7 February 2015).
Graddol, David (2010). English Next India: The future of English in India(PDF). The British Council. ISBN 978-0-86355-627-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015. Lay summary – ELT Journal (7 February 2015).
Graddol, David; Leith, Dick; Swann, Joan; Rhys, Martin; Gillen, Julia, eds. (2007). Changing English. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-37679-2. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
Green, Lisa J. (2002). African American English: a linguistic introduction. Cambridge University Press.
Greenbaum, S.; Nelson, G. (1 January 2002). An introduction to English grammar (Second ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-43741-8.
Halliday, M. A. K.; Hasan, Ruqaiya (1976). Cohesion in English. Pearson Education ltd.
Hancock, Ian F.; Angogo, Rachel (1982). "English in East Africa". In Bailey, Richard W.; Görlach, Manfred. English as a World Language. University of Michigan Press. pp. 415–438. ISBN 978-3-12-533872-2.
Harbert, Wayne (2007). The Germanic Languages. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511755071. ISBN 978-0-521-01511-0. Retrieved 26 February 2015. Lay summary – Language (journal of the Linguistic Society of America) (26 February 2015).
Hickey, R. (2007). Irish English: History and present-day forms. Cambridge University Press.
Hickey, R., ed. (2005). Legacies of colonial English: Studies in transported dialects. Cambridge University Press.
Hogg, Richard M. (1992). "Chapter 3: Phonology and Morphology". In Hogg, Richard M. The Cambridge History of the English Language. 1: The Beginnings to 1066. Cambridge University Press. pp. 67–168. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521264747. ISBN 978-0-521-26474-7.
Hogg, Richard M. (2006). "Chapter7: English in Britain". In Denison, David; Hogg, Richard M. A History of the English language. Cambridge University Press. pp. 360–61. ISBN 978-0-521-71799-1.
"How English evolved into a global language". BBC. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
"How many words are there in the English language?". Oxford Dictionaries Online. Oxford University Press. 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2015How many words are there in the English language? There is no single sensible answer to this question. It's impossible to count the number of words in a language, because it's so hard to decide what actually counts as a word.
Huddleston, Rodney; Pullum, Geoffrey K. (15 April 2002). The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43146-0. Retrieved 10 February 2015. Lay summary (PDF) (10 February 2015).
Hughes, Arthur; Trudgill, Peter (1996). English Accents and Dialects (3rd ed.). Arnold Publishers.
International Civil Aviation Organization (2011). "Personnel Licensing FAQ". International Civil Aviation Organization – Air Navigation Bureau. In which languages does a licence holder need to demonstrate proficiency?. Retrieved 16 December 2014Controllers working on stations serving designated airports and routes used by international air services shall demonstrate language proficiency in English as well as in any other language(s) used by the station on the ground.
International Maritime Organization (2011). "IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases". Retrieved 16 December 2014.
International Phonetic Association (1999). Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-65236-7.
Jambor, Paul Z. (December 2007). "English Language Imperialism: Points of View". Journal of English as an International Language2: 103–123.
Jespersen, Otto (2007) [1924]. "Case: The number of English cases". The Philosophy of Grammar. Routledge.
Kachru, B. (2006). "English: World Englishes". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 195–202. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/00645-3. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Kastovsky, Dieter (2006). "Chapter 4: Vocabulary". In Denison, David; Hogg, Richard M. A History of the English language. Cambridge University Press. pp. 199–270. ISBN 978-0-521-71799-1.
König, Ekkehard; van der Auwera, Johan, eds. (1994). The Germanic Languages. Routledge Language Family Descriptions. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-28079-2. Retrieved 26 February 2015. Lay summary(26 February 2015). The survey of the Germanic branch languages includes chapters by Winfred P. Lehmann, Ans van Kemenade, John Ole Askedal, Erik Andersson, Neil Jacobs, Silke Van Ness, and Suzanne Romaine.
König, Ekkehard (1994). "17. English". In König, Ekkehard; van der Auwera, Johan. The Germanic Languages. Routledge Language Family Descriptions. Routledge. pp. 532–562. ISBN 978-0-415-28079-2. Retrieved 26 February 2015. Lay summary (26 February 2015).
Labov, W. (1972). "13. The Social Stratification of (R) in New York City Department Stores". Sociolinguistic patterns. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Labov, W. (2012). "1. About Language and Language Change". Dialect Diversity in America: The Politics of Language Change. University of Virginia Press.
Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (2006). The Atlas of North American English. Berlin: de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016746-8. Retrieved 2 April 2015 – via De Gruyter. (Subscription required (help)).
Lanham, L. W. (1982). "English in South Africa". In Bailey, Richard W.; Görlach, Manfred. English as a World Language. University of Michigan Press. pp. 324–352. ISBN 978-3-12-533872-2.
Lass, Roger (1992). "2. Phonology and Morphology". In Blake, Norman. Cambridge History of the English Language. II: 1066–1476. Cambridge University Press. pp. 103–123.
Lass, Roger (2000). "Chapter 3: Phonology and Morphology". In Lass, Roger. The Cambridge History of the English Language, Volume III: 1476–1776. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 56–186.
Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-79105-2
Lass, Roger (2006). "Chapter 2: Phonology and Morphology". In Denison, David; Hogg, Richard M. A History of the English language. Cambridge University Press. pp. 46–47. ISBN 978-0-521-71799-1.
Lawler, J. (2006). "Punctuation". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 290–291. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/04573-9. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Lawton, David L. (1982). "English in the Caribbean". In Bailey, Richard W.; Görlach, Manfred. English as a World Language. University of Michigan Press. pp. 251–280. ISBN 978-3-12-533872-2.
Leech, G. N. (2006). A glossary of English grammar. Edinburgh University Press.
Leech, Geoffrey; Hundt, Marianne; Mair, Christian; Smith, Nicholas (22 October 2009). Change in contemporary English: a grammatical study (PDF). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86722-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2016. Lay summary (PDF) (29 March 2015).
Levine, L.; Crockett, H. J. (1966). "Speech Variation in a Piedmont Community: Postvocalic r*". Sociological Inquiry36 (2): 204–226. doi:10.1111/j.1475-682x.1966.tb00625.x.
Li, David C. S. (2003). "Between English and Esperanto: what does it take to be a world language?". International Journal of the Sociology of Language2003 (164): 33–63. doi:10.1515/ijsl.2003.055. ISSN 0165-2516. Retrieved 27 March 2015 – via De Gruyter. (Subscription required (help)).
Lim, L.; Ansaldo, U. (2006). "Singapore: Language Situation". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 387–389. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/01701-6. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Maclagan, Margaret (2010). "Chapter 8: The English(es) of New Zealand". In Kirkpatrick, Andy. The Routledge handbook of world Englishes. Routledge. pp. 151–164. ISBN 978-0-203-84932-3. Lay summary (29 March 2015).
MacMahon, M. K. (2006). "16. English Phonetics". In Bas Aarts; April McMahon. The Handbook of English Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 359–382.
"Macquarie Dictionary". Australia's National Dictionary & Thesaurus Online | Macquarie Dictionary. Macmillan Publishers Group Australia. 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015(Registration required (help)).
Mair, C.; Leech, G. (2006). "14 Current Changes in English Syntax". The handbook of English linguistics.
Mair, Christian (2006). Twentieth-century English: History, variation and standardization. Cambridge University Press.
Mazrui, Ali A.; Mazrui, Alamin (3 August 1998). The Power of Babel: Language and Governance in the African Experience. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-51429-1. Retrieved 15 February 2015. Lay summary (15 February 2015).
McArthur, Tom, ed. (1992). The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-214183-5. Lay summary (15 February 2015).
McCrum, Robert; MacNeil, Robert; Cran, William (2003). The Story of English(Third Revised ed.). London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-200231-5.
McGuinness, Diane (1997). Why Our Children Can't Read, and what We Can Do about it: A Scientific Revolution in Reading. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-83161-9. Retrieved 3 April 2015. Lay summary (3 April 2015).
Meierkord, C. (2006). "Lingua Francas as Second Languages". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 163–171. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/00641-6. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
"English". Merriam-webster.com. 26 February 2015. Retrieved 26 February2015.
Mesthrie, Rajend (2010). "New Englishes and the native speaker debate". Language Sciences32: 594–601. doi:10.1016/j.langsci.2010.08.002. ISSN 0388-0001. Retrieved 17 February 2015. – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Miller, Jim (2002). An Introduction to English Syntax. Edinburgh University Press.
Montgomery, M. (1993). "The Southern Accent—Alive and Well". Southern Cultures1 (1): 47–64.
Mountford, J. (2006). "English Spelling: Rationale". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 156–159. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/05018-5. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Mufwene, S. S. (2006). "Language Spread". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 613–616. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/01291-8. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Nation, I. S. P. (15 March 2001). Learning Vocabulary in Another Language. Cambridge University Press. p. 477. ISBN 0-521-80498-1. Retrieved 4 February 2015. Lay summary (PDF) (4 February 2015).
National Records of Scotland (26 September 2013). "Census 2011: Release 2A". Scotland's Census 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
Neijt, A. (2006). "Spelling Reform". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 68–71. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/04574-0. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Nevalainen, Terttu; Tieken-Boon van Ostade, Ingrid (2006). "Chapter 5: Standardization". In Denison, David; Hogg, Richard M. A History of the English language. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-71799-1.
Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (11 December 2012). "Census 2011: Key Statistics for Northern Ireland December 2012" (PDF)Statistics Bulletin. Table KS207NI: Main Language. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
Northrup, David (20 March 2013). How English Became the Global Language. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-30306-6. Retrieved 25 March 2015. Lay summary (25 March 2015).
O'Dwyer, Bernard (2006). Modern English Structures, second edition: Form, Function, and Position. Broadview Press.
Office for National Statistics (4 March 2013). "Language in England and Wales, 2011". 2011 Census Analysis. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
"Oxford Learner's Dictionaries". Oxford. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
Patrick, P. L. (2006a). "Jamaica: Language Situation". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 88–90. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/01760-0. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Patrick, P. L. (2006b). "English, African-American Vernacular". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 159–163. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/05092-6. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Payne, John; Huddleston, Rodney (2002). "5. Nouns and noun phrases". In Huddleston, R.; Pullum, G. K. The Cambridge Grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 323–522.
Phillipson, Robert (28 April 2004). English-Only Europe?: Challenging Language Policy. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-44349-9. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
Richter, Ingo (1 January 2012). "Introduction". In Richter, Dagmar; Richter, Ingo; Toivanen, Reeta; et al. Language Rights Revisited: The challenge of global migration and communication. BWV Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8305-2809-8. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
Roach, Peter (2009). English Phonetics and Phonology (4th ed.). Cambridge.
Robinson, Orrin (1992). Old English and Its Closest Relatives: A Survey of the Earliest Germanic Languages. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-2221-6. Retrieved 5 April 2015. Lay summary (5 April 2015).
Romaine, Suzanne (1982). "English in Scotland". In Bailey, Richard W.; Görlach, Manfred. English as a World Language. University of Michigan Press. pp. 56–83. ISBN 978-3-12-533872-2.
Romaine, Suzanne (1999). "Chapter 1: Introduction". In Romaine, Suzanne. Cambridge History of the English Language. IV: 1776–1997. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–56. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521264778.002. ISBN 978-0-521-26477-8.
Romaine, S. (2006). "Language Policy in Multilingual Educational Contexts". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 584–596. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/00646-5. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
"The Routes of English". 1 August 2015.
Rowicka, G. J. (2006). "Canada: Language Situation". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 194–195. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/01848-4. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Rubino, C. (2006). "Philippines: Language Situation". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 323–326. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/01736-3. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Ryan, Camille (August 2013). "Language Use in the United States: 2011"(PDF)American Community Survey Reports. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
Sailaja, Pingali (2009). Indian English. Dialects of English. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-2595-6. Retrieved 5 April 2015. Lay summary (5 April 2015).
Schiffrin, Deborah (1988). Discourse Markers. Studies in Interactional Sociolinguistics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-35718-0. Retrieved 5 April 2015. Lay summary (5 April 2015).
Schneider, Edgar (2007). Postcolonial English: Varieties Around the World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-53901-2. Retrieved 5 April2015. Lay summary (5 April 2015).
Schönweitz, Thomas (2001). "Gender and Postvocalic /r/ in the American South: A Detailed Socioregional Analysis". American Speech76 (3): 259–285. doi:10.1215/00031283-76-3-259.
Shaywitz, Sally E. (2003). Overcoming Dyslexia: A New and Complete Science-based Program for Reading Problems at Any Level. A.A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-375-40012-4. Retrieved 3 April 2015. Lay summary (3 April 2015).
Sheidlower, Jesse (10 April 2006). "How many words are there in English?". Retrieved 2 April 2015The problem with trying to number the words in any language is that it's very hard to agree on the basics. For example, what is a word?
Scheler, Manfred (1977). Der englische Wortschatz [English Vocabulary] (in German). Berlin: E. Schmidt. ISBN 978-3-503-01250-3.
Smith, Jeremy J. (2 April 2009). Old English: a linguistic introduction. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86677-4.
Statistics Canada (22 August 2014). "Population by mother tongue and age groups (total), 2011 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories". Retrieved 25 March 2015.
Statistics New Zealand (April 2014). "2013 QuickStats About Culture and Identity" (PDF). p. 23. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
Lehohla, Pali, ed. (2012). "Population by first language spoken and province" (PDF)Census 2011: Census in Brief (PDF). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-621-41388-5. Report No. 03‑01‑41. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 November 2015.
Svartvik, Jan; Leech, Geoffrey (12 December 2006). English – One Tongue, Many Voices. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-1830-7. Retrieved 5 March 2015. Lay summary (16 March 2015).
Swan, M. (2006). "English in the Present Day (Since ca. 1900)". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 149–156. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/05058-6. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Sweet, Henry (2014) [1892]. A New English Grammar. Cambridge University Press.
Thomas, Erik R. (2008). "Rural Southern white accents". In Edgar W. Schneider. Varieties of English. 2: The Americas and the Caribbean. de Gruyter. pp. 87–114. Retrieved 2 April 2015 – via De Gruyter. (Subscription required (help)).
Thomason, Sarah G.; Kaufman, Terrence (1988). Language Contact, Creolization and Genetic Linguistics. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-91279-3.
Todd, Loreto (1982). "The English language in West Africa". In Bailey, Richard W.; Görlach, Manfred. English as a World Language. University of Michigan Press. pp. 281–305. ISBN 978-3-12-533872-2.
Toon, Thomas E. (1982). "Variation in Contemporary American English". In Bailey, Richard W.; Görlach, Manfred. English as a World Language. University of Michigan Press. pp. 210–250. ISBN 978-3-12-533872-2.
Toon, Thomas E. (1992). "Old English Dialects". In Hogg, Richard M. The Cambridge History of the English Language. 1: The Beginnings to 1066. Cambridge University Press. pp. 409–451. ISBN 978-0-521-26474-7.
Trask, Larry; Trask, Robert Lawrence (January 2010). Why Do Languages Change?. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83802-3. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
Trudgill, Peter (1999). The Dialects of England (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-21815-9. Lay summary (27 March 2015).
Trudgill, P. (2006). "Accent". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. p. 14. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/01506-6. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary(6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Trudgill, Peter; Hannah, Jean (2002). International English: A Guide to the Varieties of Standard English (4th ed.). London: Hodder Education. ISBN 0-340-80834-9.
Trudgill, Peter; Hannah, Jean (1 January 2008). International English: A Guide to the Varieties of Standard English (5th ed.). London: Arnold. ISBN 978-0-340-97161-1. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015. Lay summary (26 March 2015).
United Nations (2008). "Everything You Always Wanted to Know About the United Nations" (PDF). Retrieved 4 April 2015The working languages at the UN Secretariat are English and French.
Wardhaugh, Ronald (2010). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Blackwell textbooks in Linguistics; 4 (Sixth ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-8668-1.
Watts, Richard J. (3 March 2011). Language Myths and the History of English. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195327601.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-532760-1. Retrieved 10 March 2015. Lay summary (10 March 2015).
Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 1: An Introduction (pp. i–xx, 1–278), Volume 2: The British Isles (pp. i–xx, 279–466), Volume 3: Beyond the British Isles (pp. i–xx, 467–674). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52129719-2, 0-52128540-2, 0-52128541-0.
Wojcik, R. H. (2006). "Controlled Languages". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 139–142. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/05081-1. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
Wolfram, W. (2006). "Variation and Language: Overview". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of Language & LinguisticsEncyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 333–341. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/04256-5. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
© 2018 Your Company. All Rights Reserved.